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Mammals as Consumers

TermDefinition
Absorption The process by which the products of digestion are transferred into the body's internal environment, enabling them to reach the cells. (Movement of nutrients from small intestine to blood capillaries.)
Aerobic Respiration This type of respiration needs oxygen for it to occur.
Alimentary Tract The passage through which food passes including the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, intestines, and anus
Amino Acids What proteins are made up of and what proteins turn into when they are digested.
Anaerobic Respiration This type of respiration occurs in the absence of oxygen
Anus The opening at the end of the digestive system from which faeces (waste) exits the body.
Appendix A small sac located on the caecum. Humans do not use it but is thought to digest plant material as primates. A human equivalent of a caecum.
Arteries Muscular-walled blood vessels forming part of the circulation system by which blood (mainly which has been oxygenated) is moved from the heart to all parts of the body.
Assimilation The process whereby absorbed nutrients are converted into the body tissues / used by the body
Bacteria Microbes that are killed by acids in the stomach
Bile A greenish-brown Alkaline fluid that aids digestion by emulsifying (breaking down) fats and is secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder
Bile duct Bile goes out here, joins up with pancreatic duct and goes into the duodenum
Blood Carries absorbed food molecules away from the small intestine
Blood stream The flow of blood through the circulatory system of an organism
Blood vessels A tube that circulates blood around the body such as an artery, a vein, or a capillary.
Bolus Small lump of lubricated, chewed food in the oesophagus
Buccal cavity Mouth and teeth
Caecum Blind pouch that is connected to the large intestine between the ileum and the colon.
Capillaries The smallest blood vessels in the body, connecting the smallest arteries to the smallest veins
Canines Teeth used for tearing
Carbohydrates Made of glucose, e.g starch, sucrose, cellulose that provide the body with energy
Chemical Digestion Type of digestion that involves the breaking down of food by enzymes and chemicals.
Chyme Food in the stomach that is partly digested and mixed with stomach acids. Goes on to the small intestine for further digestion
Colon The part of the large intestine extending from the end of the small intestine to the rectum
Consumer An organism that cannot make its own food and feeds off other organisms
Digestion The process of breaking down food by mechanical and chemical action into substances that can be absorbed
Duodenum The 1st part of the small intestine between the stomach and the jejunum The bile duct and pancreatic duct are found here. Emulsification of lipids by bile takes place here. Lipase -liquids into fatty acids and glycerol. Amylase- Carbohydrates into glucose
Egestion The removal of undigested waste products from the digestive system
Emulsification Process to describe the way in which bile breaks fats into small droplets
Enamel Hard substance that covers the crown of the tooth
Enzymes Proteins that speed up chemical reactions, build up or breakdown substances. Usually words ending with "ase" (amylase, protease, lipase)
Fibre The parts of fruits and vegetables that cannot be digested. Is of vital importance to digestion; it helps the body move food through the digestive tract.
Food Any substance consumes to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, and minerals.
Gall Bladder Stores bile
Glucose Make up of carbohydrates. Stored as glycogen
Heart Muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the blood vessels to various parts of the body by repeated, rhythmic contractions
Hydrochloric Acid Type of acid in the stomach
Ileum The last part of the small intestine before the large intestine begins. Between the duodenum and the caecum
Incisors A narrow edged tooth at the front of the mouth, adapted for cutting.
Ingestion The process of taking food into the body through the mouth
Lacteal A lymphatic capillary that absorbs dietary fats in the villi of the small intestine
Large Intestine Last section of intestinal tract: the end section of the alimentary canal reaching from ileum to anus and consisting of the cecum, colon, and rectum. Its function is to extract water and form faeces.
Lipase The enzyme which digests fats into fatty acids and glycerol
Lipids Made of fatty acids and glycerol molecules. Broken down by the enzyme lipase.
Liver Large organ which breaks down poisons and produces bile
Lungs A pair of large, spongy organs involved in the gas exchange between our blood and air. (Oxygen and Carbon dioxide)
Lymph The fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system. Carries white blood cells.
Lymphatic System The interconnected system of spaces and vessels between body tissues and organs by which lymph circulates throughout the body. The vessels of the lymphatic system drain excess fluid , called lymph from the tissues and return it to the circulating blood.
Maltase An enzyme present in saliva and pancreatic juice which catalyses the breakdown of maltose and similar sugars to form glucose
Mammal Warm blooded vertebrates that feed their young milk and have hair or fur.
Mastication The chewing of food by teeth to crush and grind. The first step of digestion, it increases the surface area of foods to allow more efficient breakdown of enzymes.
Mechanical Digestion The type of digestion carried out in the stomach when the muscular wall contracts and churns up the food
Minerals Substances that are important in keeping bodies healthy, e.g calcium, magnesium.
Molars Teeth used for grinding
Mouth The first part of the digestive system where food enters the body. Chewing and salivary enzymes are the beginning of the digestive process
Nutrients Substances that provide nourishment essential for growth and the maintenance of life
Oesophagus The long tube between the mouth and the stomach. It uses rhythmic muscle movements (called peristalsis) to force food from the throat into the stomach
Pancreas Produces lipase, proteases and amylase that help in the digestion of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the small intestine.
Pancreas duct The tube that leads from the pancreas joining the pancreas to the bile duct
Pepsin Enzyme that breaks down proteins in the stomach
Peristalsis Wave of muscular contractions which pushes a bolus of food down the digestive tract
pH Measures how acidic or basic a substance is
Physical Digestion Type of digestion that involves the breakdown of food by chewing and muscular contractions
Piloric schincter A ring of smooth muscle fibers around the opening of the stomach into the duodenum
Plasma The part of the blood which contains food molecules
Peptide Short chains of amino acids
Polypeptides A long continuous and un-branched peptide chain/chain of amino acids
Proteins Made up of Amino acids broken down by the proteases (pespin/trypsin) in the stomach
Protease The type of enzyme secreted by the stomach wall that breaks down proteins and peptides
Rectum The lower part of the large intestine where faeces are stored before they are excreted
Respiration The process of releasing energy from the breakdown of glucose. Respiration takes place in every living cell all of the time. All cells need to respire in order to produce the energy that they require.
Saliva Lubricates food and chemically digests it in the mouth
Salivary Amylase Enzyme which converts starch into maltose (two glucose molecule joined together)
Salivary glands Glands located in the mouth that produce saliva which contains amylase.
Secrete To produce and release a substance, Used when referring to glands and cells
Small intestine Where food is broken down into small enough particles to be absorbed into the blood. Made up of the Duodenim and the ileum
Stomach A sack like muscular organ that is attached to the oesophagus. Both chemical and mechanical digestion takes place here, When food enters, it is churned into a bath of acids and enzymes. Has a pH of 2
Teeth Mechanically digests food
Trypsin Enzyme produced by the pancreas that breaks down proteins into smaller units
Veins Blood vessels that carry blood towards the heart. Most carry deoxygenated blood.
Villi Structure/finger like projections in the small intestine which increase the surface area for absorption
Vitamins An organic compound required by an organism as a vital nutrient in limited amounts
Water Liquid that forms the major part of the fluids of living things
Created by: lyobri