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chapter 24

notes

deducted the actual structure of DNA James Watson and Francis Crick
the part of the DNA molecule that controls a particular trait gene
protein spools in the DNA histones
a structure in all living cells that consists of a single molecule of DNA bonded to various proteins and that carries the genes determining heredity chromosomes
groups of eight histones clustered together muleosome
the material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than bacterial are composed. It consists of protein, RNA, and DNA chromatin
a nucleic acid present in all living cells and many viruses, consisting of a long, usually single-stranded chain of alternating phosphate and ribose units, with one of the bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, or uracil bonded to each ribose molecule ribonucleic acid
the coiled structure of a double-stranded DNA molecule in which strands linked by hydrogen bonds form a spiral configuration double helix
a purine base, that is a fundamental constituent of DNA and RNA, in which it forms base pairs with cytosine guanine
is an important part of DNA and RNA, where it is one of the nitrogenous bases coding the genetic information these molecules carry cytosine
a purine base that is a component of DNA and RNA, forming a base pair with thymine in DNA and with uracil in RNA adenine
a pyrimidine base, that is one of the principal components of DNA, in which it is paired with adenine thymine
DNA and RNA are in the form of strands of molecules, a strand of DNA is composed of four nitrogenous bases known as adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosin, RNA is different from DNA because it does not have thymine, instead, it has a base known as uracil
the process by which genetic material, a single-celled organism, or a virus reproduces or makes a copy of itself replication
the movement of a chemical substance through a gradient of concentration or electrical potential in the direction opposite to normal diffusion, requiring the expenditure of energy transportation
is the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins translation
is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA from an RNA template reverse transcription
transcribed from the DNA of a gene, and from which a protein is translated by the action of ribosomes messenger RNA
small RNA molecules that carry amino acids to the ribosome for polymerization into a polypeptide transfer RNA
a molecular component of a ribosome, the cell's essential protein factory ribosomal RNA
is a sequence of three DNA or RNA nucleotides that corresponds with a specific amino acid or stop signal during protein synthesis codon
is highly similar among all organisms and can be expressed in a simple table with 64 entries, the code defines how sequences of nucleotide triplets, called codons, specify which amino acid will be added next during protein synthesis genetic code
is a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation stop codons
is the first codon of a messenger RNA transcript translated by a ribosome start codons
is the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins translation
is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually cloning
a segment of a gene situated between exons that does not function in coding for protein synthesis introns
is any part of a gene that will become a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing exons
occurs when a DNA gene is damaged or changed in such a way as to alter the genetic message carried by that gene mutations
Created by: doctorwho2000
 

 



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