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Biology EOC Review

Review of all concepts covered during Biology 1

What is meiosis? Creation of sex cells
How many female gametes are made during meiosis? 1 egg and 3 polar bodies
What is the production of male gametes called? Spermatogenesis
What is the production of female gametes called? Oogenesis
What type of cells (haploid or diploid) are made in meiosis? haploid
Who was Mendel? Austrian Monk, Father of genetics
Determine of the following is phenotype or genotype: hair color phenotype
Determine of the following is phenotype or genotype: homozygous dominant genotype
Determine of the following is phenotype or genotype: brown eyes phenotype
Determine of the following is phenotype or genotype: Bb genotype
Determine of the following is phenotype or genotype: Cc genotype
Determine of the following is phenotype or genotype: skin color phenotype
What is phenotype? The observable part of the trait-- What it looks like
What is genotype? The genes themselves-- represented by the letters
On which chromosomes do sex linked traits generally occur? X
What sex chromosomes do men have? XY
What sex chromosomes do women have? XX
Define polygenic traits. Traits that have multiple genes coding for one trait- Ex. BbGgHh
How can we tell the difference between men and women on a pedigree? Women are circles, men are squares
How can we determine if someone has a specific trait by reading a pedigree? Their shape is filled/shaded in
How can we determine if a trait is dominant or recessive by reading a pedigree? As a general rule, if the offspring has it, but the parents don't, then it is recessive.
What type of covalent bond shares electrons unequally? Polar (remember- Polar bears are greedy)
What type of bond contains a metal and a nonmetal? Ionic
What is the charge of a proton? positive
What is the charge of a neutron? neutral
What type of element is carbon? nonmetal
What type of element is potassium metal
What type of bond contains 2 nonmetals covalent
How many protons does an oxygen atom have? 8
If a bond formed between sodium and chloride, what type of bond would it be? Ionic Na- metal, Cl- nonmetal
the pH of a very strong acid would be ____. low on the pH scale
the pH scale ranges from _____. 0-14
What type of macromolecule contains monomers of fatty acids? lipids
What type of monomers do proteins contain? amino acids
What type of macromolecule contains nucleotides as monomers? nucleic acids
a monosaccharide is a monomer of what type of macromolecule? carbohydrates
What do carbohydrates do for the body? they are broken down for energy
What type of macromolecule builds and repairs body tissues? proteins
This type of macromolecule stores energy lipids
What do nucleic acids do for the body? store genetic information
What is an example of a nucleic acid? DNA/RNA
An enzyme is an example of which type of macromolecule? protein
What do enzymes do? speed up the rate of reaction (catalysts)
What is a catalyst? speeds up the reaction rate
What is an ion? an atom with a different number of electrons
a very strong base would be high on the pH scale
What is an isotope? an atom with a different number of neutrons
Saturated fats are named because they are saturated with ___? Hydrogens
Sugars are an example of what type of macromolecule? carbohydrates
which are less healthy- saturated or unsaturated fats? Why saturated because they stack, which makes them solids at room temperature- come from animals
What is the function of a centriole? aid in cell replication
what is the function of a mitochondrion? produce energy
what is the function of a chloroplast? help in photosynthesis
what is the function of a ribosome? make proteins
what is the function of a golgi body? package and distribute
what type of transport uses energy?/ Active
Facilitated diffusion is active/passive transport passive
what are the three parts of the cell theory? all things are made of cells cells come from other cells nothing smaller than a cell is living
What did Schwann do? said animals are cells
What did Schleiden do? said plants are cells
What did Leewenhoek do? Invented the modern microscope
Why is the cell membrane called the fluid mosaic model? fluid- moves mosaic- made of different things
What two parts make up a phospholipid? 1 phosphate and 2 lipids
What part of the phospholipid repels water? lipid
What part of the phospholipid attracts water? phosphate
If you submerge an animal cell in a solution that is hypertonic, what direction will water move? out of the cell
If you submerge a cell in a solution that is hypotonic, what direction will the water move? into the cell
What is isotonic? equal amounts of solute and water
What are 2 differences between a plant and animal cell Plant cells have large central vacuole, cell wall, and chloroplasts
What are 2 differences between a eukaryote and prokaryotic cell? Eukaryotes have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles Prokaryotes are small, no nucleus, no membrane bound organelles and have circular DNA
What do cilia do? help the cell move
What is the difference between osmosis and diffusion? osmosis is the diffusion of water through a membrane
Passive transport moves with/against the concentration gradient with
active transport moves with/against the concentration gradient against
diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion move water from a ___ concentration to a ___ concentration. high to low
What does the rough ER do? transport proteins
A glucose molecule must enter the cell through facilitated diffusion. This means it must use a ____ to get into the cell protein
What type of cell signal to nerves use? electrical
What are the steps of the Scientific Method? Make an observation Form a hypothesis Conduct an experiment Draw a conclusion
What is a control? Something you don’t affect in the experiment Ex. When doing an experiment that looks at how amount of fertilizer affects plant growth, your control would be a plant with NO fertilizer
What is a testable explanation for a question called? hypothesis
What are variables? Variables are the parts of an experiment being tested or changed.
What is the difference between the independent and dependent variables? Independent is what you are changing. Ex: Amount of fertilizer Dependent changes based on the independent. Ex: plant growth Remember, dependent is usually the outcome that you are looking for
Name the piece of equipment or process used to measure mass balance
Name the piece of equipment or process used to measure volume of a regular shape graduated cylinder or Volume=Lenght X Width X Height
Name the piece of equipment or process used to measure volume of an irregular shape and liquid volume graduated cylinder- fill the graduated cylinder with water, place the object in the water, measure the change in the water level
Name the piece of equipment or process used to measure temperature thermometer
What are the metric prefixes and what do they mean? Kilo- X 1000 Hecta- X100 Deca- X10 Base- meter, liter, gram - X1 Deci- / 10 Centi- / 100 Mili- / 1000
What are the three graph types? Line graph, bar graph, pie-chart/circle-graph
When is it appropriate to use a line graph? when you are measuring change over time
When is it appropriate to use a bar graph? When you are comparing variables
When is it appropriate to use a pie chart? When you are measuring parts of a whole or percentages
What are some appropriate behaviors for demonstrating lab safety? wear goggles, don't wear loose clothing, wear closed toed shoes, don't horse-play in the lab, tie your hair back if you have long hair, follow all directions given by your teacher
What are the main tenets of the cell theory? Cells are the basic unit of life Cells come from existing cells All organisms are composed of cells
What is the function of the nucleus contains DNA and controls cells’ actions
What is the function of the mitochondria provides cell's energy, involved in cell respiration
What is the function of the chloroplasts absorb sun, site of photosynthesis
What is the function of the lysosomes break down waste using enzymes
What is the function of the vacuoles storage
What is the function of the ribosomes make proteins
What is the function of the ER transports either lipids and proteins
What is the function of the golgi apparatus packaging and distribution
What is the function of the cilia/flagella movement
What is the function of the cell membrane lets things in and out of the cell
What is the function of the nuclear membrane holds DNA in nucleus
What is the function of the cell wall stucture
What is the function of the cytoplasm suport
What are the major components of a prokaryotic cell? no nucleus, ribosomes are only organelle, small, circular DNA
What are the major components of eukaryotic cell? nucleus, lots of organelles, linear DNA
What process results in cellular reproduction? mitosis
What is cellular differentiation? cells becoming their specific jobs
What is the relationship between cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems? cells form tissues, which form organs, which form organ systems
Do all cells in an organism have the same DNA? Yes, unless it has mutated
What are stem cells? Stem cells are cells that can either replicate themselves or become almost any other type of cell
What is the difference between embryonic and adult stem cells? embyronic stem cells can change into literally anything, adult stem cells can only turn into certain things- they're limited
What is homeostasis? Keeping everything the same
What controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell? cell membrane
What does semipermeable mean? Lets some things in, not others
What is the difference between passive and active transport? passive, doesn't need energy active does need energy
What does semipermeable mean? Lets some things in, not others
What is a transport protein used for? Facilitated diffusion- to get stuff too big to go through cell membrane into cell
What is endocytosis stuff coming into the cell via vesicles- phagocytosis, pinocytosis
What is exocytosis disposal of waste
What are the steps of mitosis prophase metaphase anaphase telophase
What are the steps interphase G1 S G2
What happens in prophase DNA condenses to form chromosomes
What happens in metaphase chromosomes line up in the center
What happens in anaphase chromosomes are pulled apart
What happens in telophase Cleavage furrow begins to form and nuclear membranes begin to reform around chromosomes
What happens in G1 of interphase? Transcription and translation occur
What happens in S phase interphase DNA is replicated
What happens in G2 of interphase rapid cell growth
What stage do cells spend most of their time in? interphase
How are enzymes and activation energy related? Enzymes lower activation energy
What is the purpose of photosynthesis? To take energy from the sun to make glucose (which is broken down to provide energy)
What are the two stages of photosynthesis? light reaction and dark reaction/Calvin cycle
What happens in the light reaction? happens in thylakoid, makes ATP, NADH and O2
What happens in dark reaction? Occurs in stroma, uses ATP and NADH to make glucose
What is the overall equation for photosynthesis? 6CO2 + 6H2O → 6O2 + C6H12O6
What types of cells undergo cellular respiration? Eukaryotic- both plant and animal cells
What is ATP? Adenosine tri-phosphate Chemical energy source
What is the overall equation for cellular respiration? 6O2 + C6H12O6 →6CO2 + 6H2O Remember, since Oxygen is involved, this is aerobic respiration!
What are the stages of cellular respiration? aerobic and anaerobic
What happens in anaerobic respiration? 1. glycolysis 2. fermentation
What happens in glycolysis? It is the cutting of glucose that happens in the cytoplasm Produces 2ATP, 2 Pyruvate (3 Carbon molecule), and NADH
What are the two types of fermentation? Lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation
What is the product of lactic acid fermentation? Lactic acid
What are the products of alcoholic fermentation? produces CO2 and ethanol
What are the steps of aerobic respiration? 1. Glycolysis 2. Krebs Cycle/Citric Acid Cycle 3. ETC
What happens in the Krebs Cycle? occurs in mitochondria, breaks the pyruvate down into 2 ATP, NADH and FADH2
What happens in the ETC? occurs in mitochondria, takes NADH and FADH2 and makes 32 ATP by sending the hydrogen electrons back and forth across the mitochondria membrane
How does oxygen affect the path of cellular respiration? If oxygen isn’t present, only glycolysis and fermentation happen. If oxygen is present, glycolysis goes to Krebs then ETC (electron transport chain)
How much energy comes from one glucose molecule? 36-38 ATP
What is the ATP-ADP cycle? When ATP is used, turns into ADP (pops off that last phosphate) When energy is gained, ADP is turned back into ATP (put the phosphate back on)
What makes a molecule organic? Contains Carbon
What is caloric value? The energy needed to heat one gram of water one degree Celsius
What are the building blocks of proteins? Amino acid
What are the monomers of carbohydrates and lipids? Carbohydrates- monosaccharides Lipids- fatty acids
Which macromolecules are most and least preferred for energy Most- Carbohydrates Least- Nucleic Acids
What do carbohydrates do? Carbohydrates- broken down to provide energy
What do lipids do? Lipids- insulation and energy storage
Starting with algae and ending with a shark, describe the flow of energy through a food chain. Algae, fish, bigger fish, shark ☺
Place these in the proper order: secondary consumer, producer, primary consumer. Producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer
What is the difference between a food chain and a food web? Food chain- straight line, doesn’t show all relationships Food web- shows all relationships possible- looks like spider web
How much energy is lost as energy passes through each trophic level? Approximately 10%
What is the difference between an autotroph and heterotroph? Autotroph makes its own food Heterotroph gets food by breaking down another organism
What are carnivores? Eat consumers/consume meat
What are omnivores? Eat consumers or producers
What are detritivores? eats decaying matter- consumer
What are decomposers? Type of detritivore, breaks down decaying matter
What are nucleic acids? store genetic information
What are their three components? sugar, phosphate, nucleotide base
What are three differences between DNA and RNA? RNA- 1 stranded, DNA- 2 stranded Location- DNA stays in nucleus, RNA can be found in nucleus or at ribosome Uracil is found in RNA, thymine is found in DNA
What is the relationship between DNA, and gene, and a chromosome? DNA makes up a chromosome (chromosome is tightly packed DNA) Gene is sections of the DNA
What are the base pair rules? A=T, C=G
What does DNA code for? DNA codes for proteins and traits
How many chromosome pairs do humans have? 23 pairs
How many chromosomes are sex and how many are autosomal? 22 pairs autosomes, 1 pair sex chromosome
Why is DNA replication semiconservative? It keeps half semi means half/part conservative means keep Each new strand of DNA is half of the old, original strand, half new strand
What is the relationship between transcription and translation? Transcription is the making of the mRNA Translation is the reading of the mRNA to make proteins
What are the three types of RNA? mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
What is the DNA complement to the strand AGTAACTTAG? DNA- TCATTGAATC
What is the RNA complement AGTAACTTAG? RNA- UCAUUGAAUC
What are the differences between mitosis and meiosis? Mitosis- body cells, only one cell division, resulting cells are diploid Meiosis- sex cells, 2 cell divisions, resulting cells are haploid
What are Mendel’s three laws of genetics and what do these mean? Law of dominance- one allele is dominant to the other Law of segregation- you get half your genes from mom, half from dad Law of independent assortment- genes sort independently from one another, meaning your height doesn’t influence your hair color
What is an allele? The possible forms of the genes, represented by letters
How does a Punnett square predict genetic crosses? Predicts all possible outcomes by crossing each individual allele
What is the difference between the terms diploid and haploid? Diploid- 2n, total number of chromosomes in pairs (23 pairs, your diploid number is 46)- body cells Haploid- n, single chromosomes, half the diploid number- only in sex cells/gametes
What is incomplete dominance? blending (both traits dominant) red and white make pink
What is codominance? potting (both still dominant) red and white make red-and-white-spots
What are multiple alleles? When multiple alleles code for one trait
What is polygenic inheritance? Multiple genes code for one trait – ex. Height, eye color, hair color
What is sex-linked inheritance? Sex-linked traits- linked to sex chromosomes- usually sits on X chromosome, when doing Punnett squares, make sure you’re crossing XX and XY Makes- XrY have it, XY normal Females- XrX are carrier, XrXr have it, show symptoms, XX normal
What are linked genes? Linked genes are genes that are linked on a chromosome (next to one another)
How does crossing over separate linked genes? Crossing over separates linked genes because it literally breaks off pieces of the chromosome and attaches it to another one.
What does a pedigree show? Family tree with traits
What shape is a female in a pedigree circle
What shape is a male in a pedigree square
How do you tell if a person has the specific trait in a pedigree? They're filled in
What is a mutation? change in the DNA
What is a mutagen? causes a mutation
What is evolution? change over time
What is natural selection? those that are better adapted will survive and reproduce
What is a gene pool? All of the genes within an ecosystem
What does the Hardy-Weinberg principle describe? Evolution not happening
What is gradualism in evolution? evolution happening over a long period of time
What is punctuated equilibrium and evolution? evolution happening quickly, then not
What is adaptive radiation/divergent evolution? one species becoming two—they’re becoming more differen
What is convergent evolution two species becoming more similar
What is a homologous structure? comparing structures between organisms that have the same structure (bone structure) but different functions
What is analogous structure? comparing structures between organisms, have similar functions and different structures.
What is coevolution? two species evolving as a result of one another
What is a vestigal structure A structure (bone, organ, etc...) that is left over from our ancestors. They used it, we don't
How does biochemistry provide evidence for evolution? Similar DNA over many species
In eukaryotic cells, where are ribosomes found? In the cytoplasm and on the endoplasmic reticulum
What do RNA and ATP have in common? Adenine and ribose
What are the reactants in cell respiration and the products in photosynthesis? glucose and oxygen
What molecule is used for long term energy storage and insulation in the human body? lipids
Why do grasses follow lichens during ecological succession? Lichens form soil for the grasses to grow in
During transcription, the nucleotide sequence TAC on DNA becomes what? AUG
Created by: omforrester