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Life Sci - Chap 8

Study guide

What is a fossil? traces or imprints of once living things that are preserved in rock
How are fossils formed? organism dies, becomes buried under sediment, organism slowly decomposes leaving a mold in the sediment, over time mold fils in with sediment and forms a cast
The scientists that study fossils are called? Paleontologists
What is half-life dating? counting how much carbon -14 an object has (counting how quickly the carbon in an object goes down half the amount)
What element is studied in half-life dating? Carbon-14
Explain the differences between relative dating and absolute dating. relative - comparing one object to another to see what might be older- might compare things found in different layers of the Earth - is less precise. Absolute - more accurate as it uses carbon-14 to help get a specific age on an object
Are fossils found deep in the Earth older or younger? The deeper down an object is found the older it is compared to objects found closer to the surface.
List the four eras of the Earth. Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic
What scale is used to define the Earth's long natural history and how does it work? Geologic time scale - it helps scientists place fossils in chronological order so we can see how the Earth has changed over time.
Define extinct. no longer exists on Earth
What types of organisms should be found in the Precambrian time? singles celled organisms (prokaryotes) that didn't require oxygen to live
What type of organisms should be found in the Paleozoic era? sponges, corals, snails, clams, squids and trilobites
What type of organisms should be found in the Mesozoic era? dinosaurs, birds, lizards, conifer trees - later flowering plants
What type of organisms should be found in the Cenozoic era? mammals, birds, insects, flowering plants
Define what Pangea is. the theory that all the Earth's continents were once a giant land mass
The idea that explains large pieces of the Earth's surface layers moving is plate tectonics
Give the time frame of the Precambrian time 4.6 billion years ago to 543 million years ago
Give the time frame of the Paleozoic era 543 million years ago to 248 million years ago
Give the time frame of the Mesozoic era 248 million years ago to 183 million years ago
Give the time frame of the Cenozoic era 65 million years ago to today
Define a prokaryotic organism organism that is single-celled; has no nucleus
Define an eukaryotic organism multi-celled organism - cells have nucleus
What element is ozone made from? oxygen
What is the importance of ozone? reduces radiation from the sun to the Earth
Which era was mostly water with the change of breathing land organisms? Paleozoic
The era of reptiles is? Mesozoic
The main theory of the end of the Mesozoic era is large meteor hits Earth, the dust and debris blocked the sun light from the Earth, causing plants to die which in turn caused many dinosaurs to die
Humans belong to what family of primates? hominids
Explain the differences between humans and other primates - what sets us apart? Our skeletal features, intelligence, back bone that allows us to walk up right.
What is the advantage of the opposable thumb? allows us to grip objects
List the following from oldest humans to more modern humans: global hominids, homo sapiens, australopithecines, and neanderthals Australopithecines, global hominids, neanderthals, homo sapiens
Created by: msparks



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