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Sociology 4

TermDefinition
Politics is the process by which power is distributed and decisions are made.
Government is the formal organization that has the legal and political authority to regulate relationships among members of a society and between the society and those outside its borders.
Traditional Power legitimized by respect for long-established cultural patterns
Charismatic power legitimized by extraordinary personal abilities that inspire devotion and obedience.
Rational-Legal Authority is power legitimized by legally enacted rules and regulations.
nation states A unit of political organization that has recognizable national boundaries and whose citizens possess specific legal rights and obligations.
Monarchy A political system in which a single family rules from generation to generation
Totalitarianism A highly centralized political system that extensively regulates people’s lives.
Authoritarianism Political system that denies popular participation in government
Democracy the people hold the ruling power either directly or through elected representatives.
Representative democracy Authority in hands of elected leaders chosen by people in elections
Pluralist model An analysis of politics that sees power as spread among many competing interest groups.
Maintain law and order Plan and direct society Meet social needs Handle international relations The functions of government
The power-elite model is an analysis of politics that sees power as concentrated among the rich
C. Wright Mills said the power elite comprises leaders at the top of business, the executive branch of the federal government and the military.
Middle level legislative branch of government, special interest groups, and local opinion leaders.
G. William Domhoff - the nation has a ruling class – the corporate rich is a relatively fixed group of privileged people who wield sufficient power to constrain political processes and serve underlying capitalist interest
Economy The social institution that organizes a society’s production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Goods are tangible objects that are necessary or desired.
Services are activities for which people are willing to pay.
Labor the group of people who contribute their physical and intellectual services to the production process in return for wages.
Capital wealth owned or used in business by a person or corporation
Capitalism and Socialism are the principal economic models in industrial and postindustrial countries
capitalism An economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are privately owned.
Private ownership of the means of production. Pursuit of personal profit. Competition. Lack of government intervention four distinctive features of capitalism
Corporations organizations that have legal powers such as the ability to enter into contracts and buy and sell property, separate from their individual owners.
Transnational corporations large corporations that are headquartered in one country but sell and produce goods and services in many countries
A tenet of capitalism is that people can maximize their individual gain through personal profit and society will benefit through tax revenues.
The reality of capitalism is that specific individuals gain, not necessarily the general public
Monopoly The domination of a market by a single producer
Oligopoly several companies overwhelmingly control an entire industry.
Conglomerate combinations of businesses in different commercial areas, all of which are owned by one holding company.
socialism Economic system characterized by public ownership of the means of production, the pursuit of collective goals, and centralized decision making.
Communism economic system characterized by ownership of property by the proletariat (no private ownership of property), no government, people contribute according to their ability and receive according to their needs.
Democratic Socialism an economic and political system that combines private ownership of some of the means of production, governmental distribution of some essential goods and services, and free elections.
government The formal organization that has the legal and political authority to regulate the relationships among members of a society, and between the society and those outside its borders is:
democracy A type of political system in which the people hold the ruling power either directly or through elected officials is:
socialism ________ is an economic system characterized by public ownership of the means of production, the pursuit of collective goals, and centralized decision making.
communism ________ is an economic system characterized by common ownership of all economic resources.
democratic socialism _________ is an economic and political system that combines private ownership of some of the means of production, governmental distribution of some essential goods and services, and free elections.
traditional definition of family A group of people who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption, live together, are an economic unit, and raise children
new definition of family Relationships in which people live together with commitment, form an economic unit and care for any young, and consider their identity to be significantly attached to the group.
Kinship refers to a social network of people based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption
Family of orientation is the family into which a person is born and in which early socialization usually takes place.
Family of procreation is the family a person forms by having or adopting children
An extended family is composed of relatives in addition to parents and children who live in the same household
A nuclear family is composed of one or two parents and their dependent children, all of whom live apart from other relatives
cohabitation Refers to two people who live together, and think of themselves as a couple, without being legally married.
marriage Legally recognized arrangement between two or more individuals that carries certain rights and obligations.
Monogamy is an exclusive relationship between two people.
Serial Monogamy a succession of marriages in which a person has several spouses over a lifetime but is legally married to only one person at a time.
polygamy The concurrent marriage of a person of one sex with two or more members of the opposite sex.
Polyandry is the concurrent marriage of one woman with two or more men.
Polygyny is the concurrent marriage of one man with two or more women.
infertility Defined as an inability to conceive after a year of unprotected sexual relations
divorce The legal process of dissolving a marriage that allows former spouses to remarry if they so choose
blended families families which possibly consist of a husband and wife, children from previous marriages, and children (if any) from the new marriage.
kinship A social network of people based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption is:
nuclear family A family composed of one or two parents and their dependent children, all of whom live apart from other relatives is called:
family of orientation The family one is born into and which early socialization takes place is:
blended families Family that consists of a husband, wife, and children from previous marriages and children from the new marriage, (if any) is called a
symbolic interactionists attempt to analyze how the family influences the individual’s self-concept and identity, examine the roles of husbands, wives, and children as they act out their own roles and react to the actions of others
Establishing social cohesion and a sense of belonging. Providing social control Providing meaning and purpose to life. three functions of religion
Religion A system of beliefs, practices, and philosophical values shared by a group of people; it defines the sacred, helps explain life, and offers salvation from the problems of human existence.
Supernaturalism postulates the existence of non-personalized supernatural forces that can, and often do, influence human events.
Animism the belief in inanimate, personalized spirits or ghosts of ancestors that take an interest in, and actively work to influence, human affairs.
Theism belief in a god or gods.
Abstract ideals focus on the achievement of personal awareness and a higher state of consciousness through correct ways of thinking and behaving rather than by manipulating spirits or worshipping gods
Church Religious organization that is well integrated into the larger society
Denominations exist in societies where churches do not hold a religious monopoly – they are one religion among many
Sects A religious group that forms usually to protest elements of a parent religion and deny the beliefs of others
Cults A group of advocates for belief in something new or something that has been lost or forgotten, usually with a charismatic leader and an emphasis on esoteric ideologies
Karl Marx Who said "religion is the opiate of the masses?”
a sect A religious group that forms usually to protest elements of a parent religion and deny the beliefs of others is referred to as:
symbolic interactionism To which sociological paradigm might this quote come from, “Group cohesion often occurs through the creation of shared symbols or a common value system."
Health State of complete physical, mental, and social well-being
Chronic diseases are long term or lifelong, and develop gradually or are present from birth.
Acute diseases strike suddenly and cause dramatic incapacitation and sometimes death
heart disease and cancer two leading causes of death in U.S.
alcohol and tobacco two of the most common sources of chronic disease and premature death
Tobacco is responsible for about one in every five deaths in this country.
Chronic heavy drinking or alcoholism can cause permanent damage to the brain or other parts of the body
Smoking Is most preventable health hazard in United States
Private Health Insurance cited as the main reason for medical inflation, gives doctors and hospitals an incentive to increase costs.
Public Health Insurance projections call for Medicaid spending to double and Medicare spending to triple in the next few years
fee-for-service Medicine in the U.S., throughout history, has been ____________ where patients are billed individually for services. It is an expensive way to deliver health care
Pneumonia Worsening congestive heart failure Acute renal failure Cancer Urinary tract or kidney infection Top 5 patient problems doctors failed to diagnose correctly
pays off only when the patient can afford to pay. Critics maintain that the U.S. health insurance system does what?
Breakdown in communication during patient’s initial visit to doctor One of the leading reasons for diagnostic errors, as reported in the Wall Street Journal article “Adding up Diagnosis Errors”, includes:
Created by: pace_sauce