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Planets Final #1

Test 1 Questions

Which type of rock can NOT be convertd into one of the other types? Any of them can be converted into any of them
If you observe an angular conformity, you would infer that the region has experienced: uplift and tilting of sedimentary units that exposes them to erosion over a period of time
Which of the following layers in the Earth has the highest density? outer core
Describe Hawaiian vocalnoes: They are situated in the interior of a large, Pacfic plate above a hot spot deep in the mantle
Compared to oceanic crust, continental crust is; thicker and older
If the Earth did not have plate tectonics, which of the following would probably not be found? trenches
In correct order from the center outward, Earth includes which units? inner core, outer core, mantle, crust
The Andes Mountains in South America are formed by: subduction
In order, what are the most abundant elements in Earth's crust (2)? oxygen and silicon
Motion in a P-wave is: longitudinal
Which 2 elements combine to make most of the common rock forming minerals in the crust? silicon and oxygen
If you observe a NONCONFORMITY, you would infer that the region had experienced: deposition of sedimentary layers on igneous or metamorphc rocks that are exposed at the surface of the earth
THe composition of the earth's inner core is thought to be? solid iron-nickel alloy
Which of the following areas is LEAST likely to experience an earthquake? Florida
The athenosphere is actually part of which layer of earth? mantle
Which type of lava has the lowest viscosity? basaltic
What is the difference between "lava" and "magma"? It is just a name change; and lava is what magma is called if it reaches the surface of the Earth
The largest percentage of total magma production on earth occurs at what plate tectonic setting? spreading ridges
Which layer of the Earth is the thinnest? crust
Which of the following plates is getting significantly smaller? Pacfic
The Hawaiian Island-Emperor Seamount chain is formed as a result of: hot spot activity
The position on Earth's surface directly above the earthquake source: epicenter
Which type of plate boundary is NOT commonly associated with widespread volcanic activity? continental divergent boundaries
If magma or lava cools quickly, the resulting igneous rocks will have: very small crystals
Where on Earth might you find a shield volcano? At a hot spot where basaltic lava is flowing; Hawaii or Iceland
Convergent plate boundaries are: sites where cold, downgoing convective cells, the plates, descent into the mantle
What medium will the different wave types go through? P and S waves will go through solids, P waves travel through liquids
Volcano type that are short lived volcanoes that last a few days to months then shut down: cinder cone
OCeanic crust is composed primarily of basalt
What is the major volatile constituent in both magmas and volcanic gases? water
Silts and clays are commonly deposited in lakes, lagoons, swamps, and marine environments because: those settings have relatively still water
The athenosphere is a layer of the Earth characterized by: soft rocks that flow easily
In the course of a year, how far will a tectonic plate typically move? 3 cm
Tectonic boundary found at an ocean trench: convergent continental-oceanic OR oceanic-oceanic
Tectonic boundary found at an ocean ridge: divergent oceanic-oceanic
Tectonic boundary found at a rift valley: divergent continental-continental
Oceanic crust is generated at: spreading ridges
After 3 half-lives, how much of an original, radioactive, parent isotope remains? 12.5%
A transform boundary is characterized by: a deep, vertical fault along which two plates slide past one another in opposite directions
Volcano A erupts rocks with SiO2 content ranging from 49% to 52% whereas volcano B, 100km away, erupts material with a SiO2 content of 62%-68%. What kind of volcanoes are these? Volcano A is probably a shield volcano with typically quiescent eruptions, whereas Volcano B is likely a stratovolcano characterized by violent, explosive eruptions.
Which ocean formed as a direct result of the breakup of Pangea? Atlantic
Where on the Earth might you find a continent-continent convergent plate boundary? Himalaya Mountains
What type of volcanic material is indicative of eruption under water? Pillow lavas
The lithosphere is the outer layer of the earth characterized by: hard rocks that break
Oceanic crust is destroyed at: convergent plate margains
All of the earth's ocean basins are: less than 200 million years old
What tends to increase the explosive potential of a magma body beneath a volcano? high viscosity and dissolved gas
If you observe a disconformity, you would infer that the region had experienced: deposition in shallow water, uplift or lowering of sea level enough to expose the rocks to erosion and non-deposition for a period of time
Which of the following organisms would be most likely to be preserved in the geologic record? a clam with a thick calcite shell that lived on a mudflat
What is the age of the Earth accepted by most scientists today? 4.6 billion years
Created by: 822952714493209