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Endocrine System

QuestionAnswer
What is the endocrine system responsible for? Maintain homeostasis through hormones, growth and development, regulate calcium and phosphate, maintain blood sugar levels, regulate the ability to reproduce, determine how fast cells burn food for energy.
When caring for patients with hyperthyroidism, the patients room should be kept________ and _______. Quiet , cool
Following a thyroidectomy, the patient should be positioned in what position? Semi-Fowler's
Hypothyroidism can be caused by a lack of ________. Iodine
Hypersecretion of parathormone results in _________. The development of renal calculi
Hyposecretion of parathormone results in _________. Severe muscle spasms
What syndrome is characterized by hyperglycemia and edema? Cushing's syndrome
What is one major characteristic of Addison's disease? Dehydration
Obesity is a major predisposing factor for __________. Diabates
Daily insulin injections are used to treat Type _____ Diabetes. 1
The medical term for low blood sugar is ______________. Hypoglycemia
_________ occurs when insulin is insufficient for metabolic needs. Hyperglycemia
What would you need to obtain to test someone's acetone levels? A urine specimen
Where does the blood come from when testing for glucose? The capillary
_____ to _____ is the normal fasting blood sugar range. 65 , 120
What is hyperthyroidism? The overproduction of the hormone thyroxine from the thyroid gland which causes the body processes to speed up and metabolism to increase.
What is Type 1 Diabetes? A chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin.
What is Type 2 Diabetes? A chronic condition that affects the way the body processes blood sugar (glucose)
What is Gestational Diabetes? A form of high blood sugar affecting pregnant women.
What causes Type 1 Diabetes? The body no longer makes insulin because the body's own immune system has attacked and destroyed the cells where insulin is made.
What causes Type 2 Diabetes? Heredity, being overweight and having a sedentary lifestyle
The chance of obtaining diabetes mellitus will ________ with age. Increase
What is a 'diabetic coma'? A life-threatening diabetes complication that causes unconsciousness. If you have a dangerously high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) or dangerously low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) it can lead to a diabetic coma. Hyperglycemia is most common.
What is 'diabetic shock'? Severe hypoglycemia; consequence of too much insulin. It can occur anytime there is an imbalance between the insulin in your system, the amount of food you eat, or your level of physical activity.
What are some severe complications of Diabetes? Blindness, gangrene, amputations, neuropathy, cardiovascular disease, skin conditions and hearing impairment
Type ____ diabetes is considered to be reaching epidemic levels due to obesity concerns and sedentary lifestyles. 2
Where should the lancets go immediately after they are used? Sharps container
List some signs/symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Weight loss, rapid pulse, irritability, restlessness, increased appetite, heat sensitivity, hypertension, protruding eyes, enlarged thyroid gland, inability to concentrate, weakness, difficulty sleeping, fine/brittle hair, itching, nausea and vomiting
What should the NA look for in a patient who has recently had thyroid surgery? Bleeding, respiratory distress, inability to speak, high temp, fast pulse, pronounced apprehension, irritability, numbness, tingling or muscle spams in the extremities.
What signs/symptoms would you see in someone who is worried about Type 2 Diabetes? Tires easily. skin infections, slow healing, itching, itching of the vulva, burning urination, pain in fingers/toes, and vision changes.
If a patient is in hypoglycemia, how will they seem? Have rapid/shallow respirations, will be hungry, pale/moist skin, seem excited or nervous.
How would you treat a hypoglycemic patient? Administer orange juice, milk, or another form of easily absorbed carbohydrate.
What signs/symptoms would you notice in a patient with hyperglycemia? Early headache, drowsy, confused, sweet/fruity breath, deep breathing, full-bounding pulse, hypotension, nausea/vomiting, flushed-dry-hot skin
Where would you check to see if there was any bleeding or drainage from a thyroidectomy? The back of the neck
What is glucagon? The hormone that lowers blood sugar levels.
What converts glucose to glycogen in the liver? Insulin
What is the medical term for excessive urination? Polyuria
What is the medical term for excessive thirst? Polydipsia
What is the medical term for excessive hunger? Polyphagia
What is the medical term for sugar in the urine? Glycusuria
What precautions does the NA need to remember about the feet of a diabetic? Wash and dry well daily, inspect for signs of cracks-breaks-or irritation, do not let moisture get between the toes (lotion), shoes and socks must be clean and fit well, the patient should not be barefoot.
What is hypothyroidism? A condition in which the body lacks the thyroid hormone, causing body processes to slow down. Often caused by Hashimoto's disease
What is pre-diabetes? A condition in which a person's blood glucose levels are above normal but aren't high enough for a diagnoses of Type 2 Diabetes.
What is the "master gland"? The pituitary gland
Where is the pituitary gland located? At the base of the brain, attached to the hypothalamus.
What is the difference between the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary gland? The anterior (front) lobe releases hormones and the posterior (back) lobe stores hormones for when they are needed.
What do thyroid hormones control? Regulate metabolism and growth.
Define metabolism. The process of breaking down and transforming other nutrients that enter the body to provide energy, growth and maintenance.
How many parathyroid glands are there? 4
Where are the parathyroid glands located? They are embedded into the thyroid gland.
What does the parathyroid hormone control? Levels of calcium and phosphate in the bloodstream.
Where are the two adrenal glands located? On top of each kidney.
What do the adrenal glands secrete? (4 hormones) Adrenaline (epinephrine) noradrenaline (norepinephrine) aldosterone cortisol
What hormones are included in the "fight-or-flight" response? Adrenaline and noradrenaline
In the "fight-or-flight" response, what happens to the body? Efficiency of muscle contractions increases, pulse increases, blood pressure increases, and blood glucose increases for extra energy that might be needed.
What does aldosterone do for the body? Regulates the balance of sodium, potassium and water.
What does cortisol (hydrocortisone) do for the body? Maintains metabolism by regulating the amount of glucose (natural sugar) in the blood.
Where is the pancreas located? In the posterior aspect of the abdomen behind the stomach.
What important hormone is secreted in the pancreas? Insulin
What are some normal age-related changes for the endocrine system? Estrogen and progesterone decrease (menopause), testosterone levels decrease but do not completely stop, insulin production decreases, and the body is less able to handle stress.
When providing safe diabetic foot care, what supplies do you need to have? Basin, barrier, soap, lotion, gloves, washcloth, 2 towels, bath thermometer, clean socks
Created by: azap55