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ENV 101 Final Terms

fossil fuels organic matter cut off from O and applied heat and pressure
what is coal made of terrestrial plant material
what is natural gas made of? aquatic organisms
fracking horizontal drilling method that makes pores in the shale to trap gas
tight oil conventional gas in density but located in reservoirs with low permeability so get to by fracking
oil sands deposits of large sand and partially consolidated sandstone which are low in density
oil shale fine grained sedimentary rock with organic matter
coalted methane methane stuck in the seams of rock
quality/quantity paradox despite the high quantity, the quality of solar energy is lower
energy density the quantity of energy contained per unit of mass of a fuel
power density the rate at which energy can be produced from the source/geographic area
biomass all earth's vegetation
biorefinery a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment
geothermal heat from radioactive decay deep within the earth
hydropower hydroelectric power produced by force of falling H20
Hydrogen energy energy from electrolysis and reforming of fossil fuels
electrolysis water turns into O and H gas
conservation of energy doing the same things but with less energy
energy curtailing doing different things with energy or with less energy
coal remains of plants and animals compressed in earth
oil liquid forms of decayed remains usually in ocean floor
nuclear power use nuclear reaction of fission to generate power
solar power converts sun's electromagnetic radiation to usable energy
climate change shift in long-run average of weather
Temperature anomaly departure from reference value/long term average of direct observations
instrumental record direct measurements by thermometer
proxy record indirect inferences from natural recorders of climate (corals, ice cores)
the greenhouse effect the ability of the atmosphere to absorb energy with longer wavelengths, and convert them to heat, it is a natural phenomena
radiative forcing amount of energy absorbed by gases that lie above earth's surface
Milankovic cyles episodic nature of the earth's glacial and interglacial periods caused primarily by cyclical changes in the earth's circumnavigation of the sun
attribution estimated cause and effect relationship between human activity and observed change in climate
watershed area of land where all the water that is under it or drains off of it goes into the same place
continental divide a series of ridges through the rocky mountains that divide the country into 2 drainages
water withdrawal water use that takes water out of the water source but can eventually be put back into the cycle
water consumption water taken up by organism, it cannot be recycled
instream water use don't remove water from water system (recreation, transport)
offstream water use take water out of system to use it (industry, agriculture)
saltwater intrusion when saltwater gets into groundwater well
genetic diversity differences of DNA within and between populations
species richness the number of species in a given area
evenness how evenly balanced are the abundances of each species
ecosystem diversity all living and nonliving things in an area and the variation between and within ecosystems
biodiversity total diversity and variability of living things
allopatric speciation due to geographic isolation
sympatric speciation new species arise from within parent population
biocentric biodiversity is important and non human species have value and have right to live regardless of their value or little value to humans
anthropocentric human species have more value and the importance of other species should be measured by value to humans
endemic species a species unique to a defined location and conditions, which makes it at great risk of extinction
keystone species species whose presence and numbers control the integrity of a community or ecosystem
background extinction normal extinction of species that occurs as a result of change in local environmental conflicts
mass extinction lose large percent of species
fragmentation cutting into biodiversity with roads in jungles, etc
alien species anything not native
invasive species alien and takes over everything
endangered species danger of extinction
threatened species likely to become endangered
exsitu preserving biodiversity out of the habitat
insitu preserving biodiversity in the habitat
soil horizon layer of soil
mechanical weathering physical breakdown
chemical weathering breakdown reactions with water and atmospheric gasses
crop rotation different crops use different nutrients
terrace farming decrease slope by creating layers with small flat fields, which will prevent soil from eroding as quickly
shelterbelts rows of trees to break up wind flow
conservation tillage leave leftover material for increased roughness and nutrients in soil
halogen depletion hypothesis CFCs react with short wave energy which reacts with chlorine and depletes ozone
Odd Nitrogen Hypothesis ozone reacts with hydrogen to deplete ozone
dynamic uplift hypothesis areas with lots of ozone mixing in more ozone rich areas
food insecurity unable to acquire enough food to meet needs of all members of community due to insufficient funds or lack other resources
undernourishment inadequate nutrition resulting from lack of food or lack of food that has enough nutritional value
obesity a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health
cereals edible seeds from grass family
pulses edible seeds of flowering plants
oilseed food crops grown from oil content
roots and tubers thickened underground part of stem
veggies any part of plant that's consumed
fruits sweet fleshy products from trees and plants that contain seeds
nut fruit composed of hard shell
nutrition transition the shift of dietary consumption and energy expenditure that coincide with economic, demographic and public health change
subsistence farming enough to cover own needs
shifting cultivation degrading soil and not very efficient use of farming in an area and then leaving it
feedlot cows in one area that are fed feed
pasture animals roam and eat natural grass
primary pollutants enter atmosphere in form that directly causes harm
secondary pollutants formed from primary pollutants
Created by: VaLeRiA!