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SLHS Astronomy Vocabulary Review

Theory that states that the universe began with a tremendous explosion about 15 billion years ago. The Big Bang Theory
A large group of stars in space. Galaxy
A flattened disk of stars with spiral arms and a central bulge that contains both young and old stars. Spiral Galaxy
Massive groups of old stars that look like spheres or elongated oval shapes with bright centers. Elliptical Galaxy
Group of stars that have an irregular structure and do not fit into the other categories. Irregular Galaxy
A large cloud of dust and gas in space where new stars are formed. Nebula
Where stars spend most of their active life fusing hydrogen to helium and form a diagonal pattern down the center of the H-R diagram. Main Sequence Star
A star that expands and cools once it runs out of hydrogen. Red Giant Star
A small hot star near the end of its life; the left over center of sun sized star. White Dwarf
The next stage in a star's life cycle after a white dwarf when the star has 'burned out' and no longer shines. Black Dwarf
The death of a star by a tremendous explosion which releases huge amounts of energy. Supernova
A star about the size of New York City that forms after a supernova in which nearly all the particles have become neutrons. Neutron Star
A spinning neutron star that emits rapid pulses of light. Pulsar
An object that forms after a supernova with gravity so strong that the escape velocity is greater than the speed of light. Black Hole
Which planet has the Great Red Spot? Jupiter
What part of the sun is where nuclear fusion takes place? Core
What part of the sun is only visible during a solar eclipse? Corona
What are the cooler dark marks on the sun called? Sun Spots
Which planet has a density less than water? Saturn
Which planet has atmospheric pressures 90X greater then Earth and it rains sulfuric acid? Venus
If seasonal change is dependent on the planets axial tilt, which planet will have the greatest seasonal change? Uranus
Which planet has the shortest year? Mercury
Venus is the planet with the greatest surface ____________. Temperature
Saturn is the planet with the greatest ______________________. Ring System
Mars has the largest ________________ in the solar system called Olympus Mons. Volcano
What is the area called just past Neptune's orbit where Pluto and its dwarf planet neighbors orbit the Sun? Kuiper Belt
What is the area between Mars & Jupiter called? Asteroid Belt
What is the only planet believed to have intelligent life on it? Earth
What is the farthest planet from the sun? Neptune
What type of eclipse is created when the moon travels between the Sun & the Earth? Solar
What type of eclipse is created when the Earth casts a shadow on the Moon? Lunar
What name refers to the seasonal event that happens twice a year where the position of the Sun is directly overhead at the equator? Equinox
What name refers to the seasonal event where the sun is directly overhead at the Tropic of Capricorn or the Tropic of Cancer? Solstice
Which of the Galilean Satellites around Jupiter is the most geologically active object in the solar system? IO
Which of the Galilean Satellites around Jupiter is the largest moon in the solar system? Ganymede
Which planet has dust storm that reach over 80,000ft into its atmosphere? Mars
What are the dark areas of the moon called? Maria
What are the light colored, heavily cratered, and mountainous areas of the moon called? Highlands
What theory is most accepted for the formation of the solar system? Nebular Theory
All of the planets orbit around the sun in an _______________ shape. elliptical
Who was the scientist who first determined that other galaxies are moving away from us? Hubble
What is the Red Super Giant star in the constellation Orion's right shoulder called? Betelgeuse
What is the next nearest star to us other than our sun? Alpha Centauri
A mixture of frozen gases and rocks which orbit the Sun, the solar wind causes its tail to always point away from the Sun, its path around the Sun is very elliptical or hyperbolic. Comet
This process takes two smaller atoms and combines them into one larger atom and in doing so releases a lot of energy. Fusion
This process takes one larger atom and splits it into two smaller atoms and in doing so releases a lot of energy. Fission
What is the name of the scientist that gave us the laws of planetary motion? Kepler
What scientist first suggested the the Earth was at the center of our solar system? Copernicus
What type of tide is formed when the Sun, Earth, & Moon all line up and make the highest high tides and the lowest low tides. Spring
What type of tide is formed when the Sun, Earth, & Moon are all at a 90 degree angle to one another? Neap
Created by: rrosset