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Endocrine System

Chapter 13

Hypothalamus Inferior part of the diencephalon.
Pituitary Gland Base of brain.
Pancreas Behind the stomach in the abdomen.
Pineal Gland Posterior and superior diencephalon.
Thyroid Gland Anterior and inferior neck superficial to the larynx.
Parathyroid Gland Posterior thyroid gland.
Thymus Sits in the superior mediastinum.
Adrenal Gland Superior pole of each kidney.
Testes In the scrotum on the male.
Ovary Lower abdomen on the female.
Steriod Lipids; building block: cholesterol, sex hormones: estrogen, testosterone, four-fused ring, contain carbon hydrogen, insoluble in water.
Non-Steroid Protein, building block: amino acids, sex hormones: epinephrine, gonadotropin, parathyroid hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone; soluble in water.
Negative Feedback Reverse changes in the controlled condition. Negative feedback mechanisms control many long term states such as body temperature and hydration. Most of the feedback mechanisms that regulate hormones in the human body are negative feed back systems.
Positive Feedback Reinforce changes in the controlled condition. Example: uterine contractions during childbirth: when contractions start oxytocin is released which stimulates more contractions and more oxygen to be released.
Hypothalamus (hormones) Somatostatin: inhibits other hormones. Anti-diuretic Hormone: regulates water levels. Growth Hormone: Releasing hormone: controls normal physical development in children.
Anterior Pituitary (hormones) Luteinizing Hormone: Controls reproductive functioning. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone: Controls reproductive functioning. Prolactin: Stimulates production of breast milk. Growth Hormone: Stimulates growth and repair.
Posterior Pituitary (hormone) Oxytocin: Uterine Contractions
Thyroid Gland (hormone) Thyroxine: Controls many vital body functions.
Parathyroid Gland (hormone) Parathyroid Hormone: Regulates calcium levels in the blood.
Pineal Gland Melatonin: Regulates circadian rhythm.
Pancreas Insulin: Regulates sugar levels Glucagon: Regulates sugar levels
Adrenal Gland Adrenal Cortex Cortisol:Regulates metabolism and response to stress. Aldosterone: Sodium levels and blood pressure. Adrenal Medulla Adrenaline: Fight or flight
Created by: macy.patrice