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Gene Action Ch.11

Reproduction and Inheritance in Living Systems

TermDefinition
Who created the description of DNA? James Watson and Francis Crick
What are the importance of DNA? encoded instructions for cell structure and functions, the molecular basis of reproduction, required for the building maintenance and regulation of all living cells
Polymer a very long chain like molecule composed of small sub-unit molecules, or monomers, attached by covalent bonds
Nucleotide a sub-unit or building block of nucleic acids chemically structured of deoxyribose sugar, triphosphate group, and nitrogen bases a (A, T, C, and G)
Complementary Base Pairing a predictable interaction between nitrogen bases on opposite strands of DNA and between DNA and RNA [Base Pairing=Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G)] lets DNA act as a template for its own replication
DNA Sequence the order of bases or nucleotides
Replication the process of making a copy of the genetic information in a cell nucleus (Steps= enzymes seperate the 2 DNA strands unzip, enzymes read the sequence of nucleotides on one strand)
Mutation a heredity change to the nucleotide sequence of a gene, in other words an error in the replication of DNA template
Deletion Mutation results when replication enzymes mistakenly skip a base and the new DNA strand forms a missing base
Insertion Mutation a change in a DNA sequence involving adding a new nucleotide or sequence of nucleotides
Substitution Mutation caused by substituting on a nucleotide for another nucleotide during jreplication
Repair Enzymes detects and repair mutations, but some mutations become a permanent part of a cell's genetic material
Gametes mutations in gametes can pass to offspring
Natural Selection acts strongly to keep detrimental and lethal mutations from accumulating in a species
Gene a fundamental physical unit of heredity, which transmits a set of specifications from one generation to the next
Alleles one or two or more possible forms of a gene; different version of gene they each affect the hereditary trait somewhat differently
Gene Expression the process by which genetic information is used to synthesize a functional product such as RNA or protein
Transcription the assembly of an RNA molecule complementary to a strand of DNA
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) the heredity material coded by the DNA of cells to carry out specific genetic functions (ribose sugar) (helix) (no thymine [T] has uracil [U] which pairs with adenine [A])
Messenger RNA (mRNA) the RNA complementary to one strand of DNA acts as a messanger
Transfer RNA (tRNA) responsible for transporting amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) responsible for assembling amino acids in the ribosome during protein synthesis
Translation the assembly of proteins on ribosomes, using mRNA to direct the order of amino acids (converting the genetic code in a mRNA sequence into an amino acid sequence
Genetic Code the "language" of the genes in which the nucleotide sequence of DNA specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein (20 different amino acids)
Condon the basic unit of the genetic code made up of sequence of three adjacent nucleotides on one strand of DNA or mRNA
Ribosome the cellular organelle that serves as the site for protein synthesis
Peptide Bond a type of covalent bond that links amino acids together to form a protein
Genome all of the information coded in the DNA of an organism
Gene Therapy introducing genetically engineered human cells into a human body for curing a genetic defect
Genetic Screening the ability to screen an individual or population for a genetic disorder through DNA analysis
Cloning the production of genetically identical organisms via somatic cell nuclear transfer
Created by: emilyottinger21