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DCBIO Genetics

Chapter 9 study guide

What is Amniocentesis? the sampling of amniotic fluid using a hollow needle inserted into the uterus, to screen for developmental abnormalities in a fetus.
When is Amniocentesis done? after 14 weeks
Define allele one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
True Breeding Dominant AABB
True Breeding Recessive aabb
Dominant A
Recessive a
Phenotypic ratio 3:1 (dominant, recessive)
Genotypic ratio 1:2:1 (capital, capital, lowercase)
Phenotype trait expressed
Genotype alleles
Mendel's Principle of Segregation and Law of Independent Assortment Segregation = separation Independent = by themselves
Incomplete Dominance one allele does not completely dominate another allele, and therefore results in a new phenotype
Co-Dominance a condition in which the alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote are fully expressed thereby resulting in offspring with a phenotype that is neither dominant nor recessive
Polygenic one of a group of nonallelic genes that together control a quantitative characteristic in an organism
Monohybrid Tt - one letter
Dihybrid TtDd - two letters
Sex-Linked X^a Y crossed with X^A X^a
Gene Mapping the process of determining where genes are located on individual chromosomes
Linked Genes genes that are found near each other on the same chromosome
Blood Typing the testing of a sample of blood to determine an individual's blood group
Epistasis occurs when two or more different gene loci contribute to the same phenotype, but not additively
Epistatic describes the relationship between the genes in epistasis
Recombination the rearrangement of genetic material, especially by crossing over in chromosomes or by the artificial joining of segments of DNA from different organisms
Pleiotropy occurs when one gene influences two or more seemingly unrelated phenotypic traits
Created by: sammyogdahl