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Cell Division

Mitosis and Miosis

in a non-dividing cell what form are chromosomes in? chromatin (stretched out)
what happens to the chromatin when a cell divides? the DNA is copied and the chromatin condenses to form chromosomes
how many chromosomes do humans have? 46 grouped into 23 pairs (22 autosomes & 1 pair of sex chromosomes)
what are homologous pairs? these are chromosomes that carry the gene coding for the same characteristics
what is the purpose of mitosis? it is essential as it replicates cells allowing for old or damaged cells to be replaced and allowing us to grow
what is the first stage of interphase? first growth phase
what happens during the first growth phase? during this phase the cell grows, performs normal metabolic functions and makes new proteins and organelles
what is the second stage of interphase? synthesis phase
what happens during the synthesis phase? DNA and chromosomes are replicated, synthesis of DNA
what is the final stage of interphase? second growth phase
what happens during the second growth phase? the cell grows and prepares for mitosis, some organelles are duplicated
what is the first stage in mitosis? prophase
what happens during prophase (in mitosis)? the chromosomes become visible, centrioles move to opposite ends and spindle fibers appear
what is the second stage of mitosis? metaphase
what happens during metaphase (in mitosis)? the chromosomes line up along the middle of the cell and the spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes
what is the third stage of mitosis? anaphase
what happens during anaphase (in mitosis)? the spindle fibers attach to the centromeres, they split the chromosomes into two
what is the final stage of mitosis? telophase
what happens during telophase (in mitosis)? the chromosomes are pulled to opposite ends of the cell and the nuclear membrane reappears, cytokinesis occurs and two new daughter cells are created
what is cytokinesis? division of cytoplasm
what are the differences during mitosis and animals and plants? in animals the production if the spindle fibers is via centrioles, in plants its via microtubule organizing centers, in animals the division of cytoplasm occurs via cytokinesis, in plants it occurs via the building of a cell plate
how long does interphase take to complete? hours, days, years
how long does prophase take to complete? 15-30 minutes
how long does metaphase take to complete? 20 minutes
how long does anaphase take to complete? 3 minutes
how long does telophase take to complete? <10 minutes
what is cancer? uncontrolled cell division
what is a benign tumour? a tumour that does not spread beyond the area it first developed (non-cancerous)
what is a malignant tumour? a tumour that keeps growing and spreading (cancerous)
what is a diploid cell? one that has 2 copies of each chromosome (1 from your father, 1 from your mother)
what is the purpose of miosis? gamete production
what are gamete cells? sexual cells (sperm, eggs etc)
parent and daughter cells in mitosis? identical, clones, 2 daughter cells produced (diploid)
parent and daughter cells in miosis? genetic variation, 4 daughter cells produced (haploid)
what needs to occur before miosis can begin? the chromosomes need to find the homologous pair and duplicate
how many stages are there in mitosis? 4
how many stages are there in miosis? 8
what happens in prophase 1? tetrads are formed by the synpasis of homologous pairs, crossover occurs creating genetic variation
what happens in metaphase 1? the tetrads align along the middle of the cell, the spindle fibers come out of the centrioles at opposite poles and attach to the chromosome, independent assortment occurs
what happens in anaphase 1? the spindle fibers pull the chromosomes to opposite poles, the homologous pairs are separated but the sister chromatids remain together
what happens in telophase 1? the chromosomes reach the opposite poles, each with a haploid number of chromosomes, cytokinesis occurs and 2 new daughter cells are produced
what happens in prophase 2? no chromosome replication takes place, the nuclear membrane breaks up and the chromosomes become visible
what happens during metaphase 2? the chromosomes line up along the middle of the cell, the spindle fibers have come out of the centrioles at opposite ends of the cell and attach to the chromosomes
what happens during anaphase 2? the sister chromatids separate and begin moving to opposite poles as they are pulled by the spindle fibers
what happens during telophase 2? the nuclear membrane reforms, cytokinesis occurs and 4 new daughter cells are produced
what happens during crossover? this occurs at prophase 1, the homologous pairs wrap around each other and sections break off and reattach, new combinations of alleles are now seen
what happens during independent assortment? this occurs during metaphase 1, the random arrangement of chromosomes along the middle of the cell lead to different combinations of chromosomes migrating to different poles
what are haploid cells? cells with only one set of chromosomes
what is a tetrad? two pairs of homologous chromosomes paired together
what is synapsis? two chromosomes form a tetrad and begin to exchange segments of the chromosomes
what is a sister chromatid? double stranded replicated chromosomes
Created by: deannarosee



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