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BIOL Exam II - Ex. 9

Reproduction and Development

QuestionAnswer
How do two haploid cells fuse to form one diploid cell? fertilization
Fungi are more closely related to ___ than ___. - animals - plants
What are deuterostomes? Examples? - "mouth second" - the first opening (the blastopore) becomes the anus - ex. sea urchins, chickens, humans
What are protostomes? Examples? - "mouth first" - the first opening (the blastopore) becomes the mouth - ex. crayfish, worms, mollusks
What is the purpose of the fertilization membrane? to prevent other sperm from penetrating the egg
cleavage rapid cell division
In this lab, you conducted an experiment examining the effects of ___ and ___. - a stimulant and a depressant on a chick embryo's heart rate - hypertonic and hypotonic solutions on sea urchin eggs
Why do we use sea urchins gametes to study early development? - male and female gametes are released externally; easy to collect (after injecting with KCl) - fertilization easy to detect (presence of fertilization membrane) - early stages of sea urchin development are very similar to those of all animals
Why do we use chick embryos to study early development? - the embryo is easily accessible (just have to make a hole in the egg shell) - many of the features of chick early development are similar to our own early development
List the stages of early animal development (7). - gametogenesis - fertilization - cleavage - blastulation - gastrulation - organogenesis - neurulation
What is the proper disposal method for the chick egg and shell? - animal carcass disposal container: stained and dissected chick embryo with filter paper, liquid egg white and yolk material, egg shells - place a scoop of litter atop discarded egg material to absorb moisture and odors
What did you observe/test in exercise 9? - sea urchin: fertilization, cleavage, and gastrulation in the embryo; the effects of tonicity on the eggs - chick embryo: 3 primary germ layers, process of neurulation, and formation of heart; the effects of a stimulant and depressant on heart rate
differentiation the process by which a less specialized cell develops or matures to become more distinct in form and function
zygote - a cell in diploid state following fertilization - product of union of haploid male sex cell (sperm) and haploid female sex cell (ovum)
In sea urchins, fertilization is ___. external
What morphological change happens with sea urchin fertilization? the formation of the fertilization membrane
blastulation the formation of a hollow ball of cells (blastula/blastomere) with a fluid-filled inner cavity (blastocoel)
The blastula consists of ___ cells and is ___ in size to the original fertilized egg. - 64 - similar
gastrulation the movement of cells from the surface of the blastula to the interior at a site called the blastopore
What germ layers result from gastrulation? What do they eventually become? - ectoderm: skin; nervous system - mesoderm: bone; muscle; circulation system; sex organs - endoderm: stomach; gut; liver; lungs; thyroid
Approximately how long does each stage of development take? - fertilization membrane: 2-5 mins - first cleavage: 50-70 mins - second: 70-100 mins - third: 100-145 mins - blastula: 6 hrs - gastrula: 12-20 hrs - pluteus larvae: 24-48 hrs - adult: month after pl
pluteus larvae - formed from the final gastrula in the sea urchin - primarily bilateral (= two-sided symmetrical) - have prominent arms
During what stage of development of the sea urchin embryo is the endoderm formed? gastrulation
What part of the sea urchin embryo will the blastopore form? anus
The fluid mosaic model states that a membrane is a fluid structure with a "mosaic" of ___ embedded in it. various proteins
In a hypertonic solution, water will move ___. This will cause an animal cell to become ___ and a plant cell to become ___. - out of a cell - shriveled - plasmolyzed
In a hypotonic solution, water will move ___. This will cause an animal cell to become ___ and a plant cell to become ___. - into a cell - lysed - turgid
In a isotonic solution, water will move ___. This will cause an animal cell to become ___ and a plant cell to become ___. - equally between the environment and a cell - normal - flaccid
What are isolecithal eggs? What type of cleavage do they go through? - eggs with a very low yolk content; yolk it is evenly distributed (iso = even) - go through holoblastic cleavage (a complete cleavage / completely penetrates the egg)
What are telolecithal eggs? What type of cleavage do they go through? - eggs with a large amount of yolk which is separate from the embryo (embryo at one end [telo] of the egg) - go through meroblastic cleavage (incomplete or partial cleavage / does not penetrate the egg completely)
A sea urchin egg is placed in distilled water. How would you describe the solution? What will happen to the egg? - sea urchins usually in salt water, so distilled water is a hypotonic solution (more solute in the egg than the water) - water will flow into the egg, causing it to burst
What is albumen? What is its function? - egg white - to protect the yolk and provide additional nutrition for the growth of the embryo (when fertilized)
What is yolk? What is its function? - yellow - to supply food for the development of the embryo
What is the shell? What is its function? - white; matted organic fibers and calcareous salts - protection - porous to allow for gas exchange
Gastrulation begins with the formation of the ___, which runs from the ___ to the ___. The ___ is at the leading end. - primitive streak (narrow groove) - tail to the head - hensen's node
Cells that move through the primitive streak give rise to the ___ and ___. - mesoderm - endoderm
What are the notochords and somites derived from? mesoderm
What do the germ layers give rise to in chicks? - ectoderm: nervous system - mesoderm: notochord, somites, circulatory system - endoderm: digestive system, lungs
The notochord, derived from the mesoderm, induces the formation of the ___ from ___ tissue. This is called ___. - neural tube - ectodermal - neurulation
Structure that establishes bilateral symmetry in vertebrates. Determines the site of gastrulation. Plays an important role in initiating germ layer formation. Structure that forms during the early stages of embryonic development. primitive streak
neurulation the stage of organogenesis in vertebrate embryos, during which the neural tube is transformed into the primitive structures that will later develop into the central nervous system
Explain the steps of neurulation. - notochord signals the ectoderm germ layer above it to form the thick and flat neural plate - neural plate folds in upon itself to form the neural tube, which will later differentiate into the spinal cord and the brain (CNS)
At what stage of development does the heart become obvious? 33-hours
At what stage of development can you see eyes beginning to form? 48-hours
At what stage of development can you see optic bulbs, lens, and olfactory grooves? 72-hours
At what stage of development can you see leg and wing buds? 96-hours
How do the very early stages of development (e.g., cleavage, blastula, gastrulation) differ between sea urchin embryos and chick embryos. - sea urchins: holoblastic cleavage; blastula formed from equal divisions of cytoplasm; gastrulation makes 3 layers - chicks: meroblastic cleavage; blastoderm forms separately from yolk; gastrulation makes primitive streak, which gives rise to 3 layers
Created by: jessica.gvc