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Oceanography Review

Divergent Boundries Places where tectonic plates move apart
AOB is growing and POB is shrinking Compare Atlantic Ocean Basin to Pacific Ocean Basin
Rift valley Results from divergence of continental crust
Divergent Boundry Mid-Atlantic Ridge is an example of __________.
Subducted When oceanic crust converges with continental crust the oceanic crust is __________.
Black Smoker Hydrothermal vents emitting water at greater than 350 degrees Cel. rich in dark metallic sulfides
Mid-Ocean Ridge World's longest under water chain
Fossils, rock formations, and coastlines Wegner based his teory of continental drift on this...
Marinas Trench The deepest point in the ocean
Open field, where nothing can fall on you The safest place to go during an earthquake
Radioactivity from the mantle The origin of the heat from convection within the Earth.
Less dense than the oceanic crust Reason why the continental crust floats higher in the mantle than the oceanic crust.
Composed of mantle material below the lithosphere Composition of the asthenosphere
Secondary waves Type of seismic wave that can only travel through solid
Sea Satellite Used to see cross sectional views of the underwater land features
Mid-Ocean Ridge is spreading in the center, is the largest mountain chain, and the oldest mountain chain Three things about the Mid-Ocean Ridge
Fecal pellets from marine animals Increases the settling rate of fine particles in the open ocean
Hydrogenous Term for sediments that are produced as a result of chemical reaction in seawater.
Drilling Method most often used to investigate sediment and rock layers below seafloor.
Island Term for a seamount that breaks the water's surface.
Atlantic type margin and a passive margin Name for continental margin with no recent seismic activity
Shelf, slope, and rise Composition of the continental margin.
Fringing reef, barrier reef, atoll Order of development of reefs from the earliest to the latest
Calcium carbonate Composition of foraminifera
Erosion by turbidity currents What most likely formed submarine canyons
Hydrogen bonding and surface tension Chemical property of water and/or physical characteristic that causes solid objects to stay supported on network of H2O molecules.
Pycnocline When density changes rapidly with a corresponding change in depth
Heat capacity Term that measures the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of substance 1 degree C.
A decrease in salinity and increase in temperature Causes seawater's density to decrease
7.8 -- 8.3 Standard pH for ocean water
Shadow Zone Region where very little sound energy penetrates
Blue Color of light that moves farthest through seawater
Colligative properties Properties that change with salinity
A buffer Substance that acts to stabilize the pH of any given substance
Percipitation Process where water vapor condenses into liquid water
Electrical conductivity Method for measuring salinity and total dissolved solids by measuring how well a current of electrons moves through the solution.
Nitrogen Gas in seawater that must be fixed into useful chemical forms by specialized organisms in order to be used by animals.
Surface tension What property allows some insects to glide across the water
Horse latitude The weakest winds.
Low pressure cells The kind of pressure cells that build up during hurricanes
Upwelling When cold, nutrient rich water moves from ocean depths to the surface
Antarctica, Ellesmere Island, and Greenland Where large glaciers are found
Typhoons What hurricanes are caused by in the Pacific and Indian Ocean
Trade winds Type of winds that are found between the zone of the equator and 30 degrees lat.
Pack, polar, and fast ice Three types of sea ice
Westerlies Type of winds that are found between the zone of 30 degrees and 60 degrees latitude.
Respiration Process that burning fossil fuels are chemically similar to
El Nino What happens when trade winds in the Pacific basin weakens
Kyoto Protocol Agreement 60 nations signed to limit greenhouse gas emissions
Wet and warm What maritime tropical air mass is like
Trade winds Strongest winds on earth
Right Direction winds veer in Northern Hemisphere due to Coriolis effect
Speed = wavelength/period Formula for wave speed
one high and one low tides Type of tides in area with diurnal tides
Wind direction, fetch, and wind speed What the height of a wave depends on...
Orbital waves Type of waves that are water waves
Constructive makes large waves and destructive makes small waves Type of waves that constructive interference causes verses type destructive inference causes
Neap tide Type of tides during the time of half moon in November
1/2 the wavelength What a deep water wave must be deeper than
Beach, dunes, shrubs, forest, marsh, tidal flats, sound Order of environment seen walking from ocean landward across barrier island.
Period = Time/Rate Formula for period of water waves
Speed = length/period Formula for speed of water waves
Frequency = waves/time Formula for frequency of water waves
fetch Uninterrupted distance over which wind blows without much changing in direction.
Steepness Ratio of wave height to the wavelength
Terrestrial has largest biomass tonnage and marine has the faster turnover time Environment that produces greater biomass tonnage and environment that has fastest turnover time
Chemosynthesis Process that doesn't require light to create energy
Nitrogen Gas in seawater that must be "fixed" to be useful chemical form
Ectothermic Term that refers to cold blooded animals
Stenohaline for narrow tolerance for salinity. Eurythermal for broad range of temperatures Terms used to describe the following organism: Narrow tolerance for change in salinity but can adapt to a wide range of temperatures
Mutualistic relationship when two organisms of different species "work together," each benefiting from the relationship.
Sessile Term for an organism that permanently attaches itself to the substrate
Species Specific Relationship Name for exclusive symbiotic relationship that develops between two different species.
Trophic pyramid Shows description of feeding relationships and how they impact each other
Metabolic rate Rat at which energy-releasing reactions proceed within an organism
Complex interaction with species and wide variety of species What high biodiversity within a community indicates
Between high and low tides Where you would find intertidal zones
N2 + 4H2 --> 2NH3 + H2 Formula for ammonification of nitrogen
No hair and no external ears Two things marine animals lack that help them become good swimmers
Jet propulsion What a nautilus uses for movement
Flexible ribs Prevents many marine animals from getting the bends when they dive
High tide ONLY Tide the California grunion comes ashore to breed
Inferior with mouth down-turned or on the bottom of head Shape of mouth grazers of bottom dwelling scavengers have
Caudal Fins used for moving fast in the ocean
Anadromous Type of fish that spawns in freshwater but lives mostly in the ocean
Oviparous Type of fish that lay eggs
Skin is so sensitive; could not survive in salt water Reason amphibians (frogs, salamanders, etc.) do NOT live in the ocean
Solar energy Most common alternative energy
12 miles Distance from shore the UN designated as territorial waters
Boat propellers Linked to deaths of manatees
By catch or by kill Terms of an animal that is caught by accident but killed on purpose
Aquaculture Term for raising and breeding fish for commercial use
TED (Turtle excluder device) Term of a by-catch reduction invention that lowers risk of turtles being accidentally caught.
Winter beaches are more narrower because of the greater wave action in winter How summer and winter beaches compare
Influence climate of India, caused by seasonal shifts of prevailing winds, and can bring large amounts of water causing floods Three characteristics of Monsoons
Shipping of oil Largest source of ocean oil pollution
Exon Valdez in 1989 and BP Gulf Sill in 2010 Name of one of the largest oil spills in America off coast of Alaska in 1989 and name of the second largest oil spill in world that happened in 2010.
Created by: dlimbach