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med term chap 8

neurology

QuestionAnswer
a small seizure in which there is a sudden,temporary loss of consciousness, lasting only a few seconds absence seizure
a chemical substance in the body tissues that facilitates the transmission of nerve impulses from one nerve to another: it has a stimulant effect on some parts of the body such as the skeletal muscles, and a depressant effect on other parts of the body su acetylcholine
transmitters of nerve impulses toward the central nervous system; also known as sensory nerves afferent nerves
loss of mental ability to understand sensory stimuli such as sight, sound, or touch, even thought the sensory organs themselves are functioning properly agnosia
inability to convert one's thoughts into writing agraphia
inability to understand written words alexia
without sensitivity to pain analgesia
without feeling or sensation anesthesia
a localized dilation of in the wall of an artery that expands with each pulsation of the artery: usually caused by hypertension or atherosclerosis aneurysm
inability to communicate through speech, writing, or signs because of an injury or disease to certain areas of the brain aphasia
inability to perform coordinated movements or use objects properly: not associated with sensory or motor impairment or paralysis apraxia
the weblike, middle layer of the 3 membranous layers surrounding the brain and spinal cord arachnoid membrane
a star-shaped neuroglial cell found in the central nervous system astrocyte
a tumor of the brain or spinal cords composed of astrocytes astrocytoma
without muscular coordination ataxia
the sensation of individual experiences prior to the onset of of a migraine headache or an epileptic seizure: it may be a sensation of light or warmth and may precede an attack by hours or only a few seconds aura
the part of the nervous system that regulates the involuntary vital functions of the body, such as the activities involving the heart muscle, smooth muscles and the glands. The autonomic nervous system has 2 divisions: sympathetic and parasympathetic, whi autonomic nervous system
the part of the nerve cell that transports away from the nerve cell body axon
a protective characteristic of the capillary walls of the brain that prevents the passage of harmful substances from the bloodstream into the brain tissue or cerebrospinal fluid blood-brain barrier
abnormally slow movement bradykinesia
the stem like portion of the brain that connects the cerebral hemisphere with the spinal cord. The brain stem contains the midbrain, the pons and the medulla oblongata brain stem
a positive sign of meningitis, in which there is involuntary flexion of the arm, hip, and knee when the patient's neck is passively flexed Brudzinski's sign
a hole drilled into the skull using a form of drill burr hole
the lower end of the spinal cord and the roots of spinal nerves that occupy the spinal canal below the level of the first lumbar vertebrae; so named because it resembles a horse's tail cauda equina
a sensation of an acute burning pain along the path of the peripheral nerve, sometimes accompanied by erythema of the skin; due to injury of peripheral nerve fibers causalgia
the part of the cell that contains the nucleus and the cytoplasm cell body
one of the 2 main divisions of the nervous system, consisting of the brain and spinal cord central nervous system
pain in the head; headache chephalagia
the part of the brain responsible for coordinating voluntary muscular movement; located behind the brain stem cerebellum
a brief interruption of brain function, usually with a loss of consciousness lasting for a few seconds. the transient loss of consciousness is usually caused by blunt trauma to the head cerebral concussion
small scattered venous hemorrhages in the brain; better described as a "bruise" of the brain tissue occurring when the brain strikes the inner skull cerebral contusion
thin outer layer of nerve tissue, known as gray matter, that covers the surface of the cerebrum cerebral cortex
the fluid flowing through the brain and around the spinal cord that protects them from physical blow or impact cerebrospinal fluid
the largest and uppermost part of the brain; it controls consciousness, memory, sensations, emotions, and voluntary movements cerebrum
and abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by periods of apnea followed by deep rapid breathing Cheyne-Stokes respirations
a deep sleep in which the individual cannot be aroused and does not respond to external stimuli coma
pertains to being in a coma comatose
a permanent shortening of muscle causing a joint to remain in an abnormally flexed position, with resultant physical deformity contracture
one of the many elevated folds of the surface of the cerebrum; also called a gyrus convolution
a surgical incision into the cranium or skull craniotomy
any deficiency of variation of the normal, as in a weakness deficit resulting from a cerebrolvascular accident deficit
a progressive, irreversible mental disorder in which a person has deteriorating memory, judgment,and ability to think dementia
destruction or removal of the myelin sheath that covers a nerve or nerve fiber demyelination
a projection that extends from the nerve cell body; it receives impulses and conducts them on to the cell body dendrite
the part of the brain that is located between the cerebrum and the midbrain. its main structures consists of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and pineal gland diencephalon
double vision; also known as ambiopia diplopia
the outermost of the 3 membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord dura mater
a condition characterized by an impairment of the ability to read; letters and words are often reversed when reading dyslexia
difficult speech dysphasia
transmitters of nerve impulses away from the central nervous system; also known as motor nerves efferent nerves
an abnormal condition in which a blood clot (embolus) becomes lodged in a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood within the vessel embolism
the space immediately outside the dura mater that contains a supporting cushion of fat and other connective tissues epidural space
a neurological condition characterized by recurrent episodes of sudden, brief attacks of seizures; the seizure may very from mild and unnoticeable to full-scale convulsive seizures epilepsy
a deep groove on the surface of an organ fissure
a space covered by tough membrane between the bones of an infant's skull called a "soft spot" fontanel or fontanelles
the style of walking gait
a knotlike mass of nerve tissue outside of the brain or spinal cord ganglion (plural: ganglia)
the part of the nervous system consisting of axons that are not covered with myelin sheath, giving a gray appearance gray matter
convolution gyrus (plural: gyri)
slight or partial paralysis of one half of the body hemiparesis
paralysis of one half of the body hemiplegia
an acute infection caused by the same virus that causes chicken pox, characterized by painful vesicular lesions along the path of a spinal nerve, also called shingles Herpes zoster
excessive sensitivity to sensory stimuli; such as pain or touch hyperesthesia
excecceisve muscular movement and physical activity: hyperactivity hyperkinesis
a part of the brain located below the thalamus that controls many functions such as body temperature, sleep, and appetite hypothalamus
connecting neurons that conduct impulses from afferent nerves to or toward motor nerves interneurons
a diagnostic sign for meningitits marked by the person's inability to extend the leg completely when the thigh is flexed upon the abdomen and the person is sitting or lying down Kernig's sign
the study of muscle ovement kinesiology
a state of being sluggish lethargy
a deep groove in the middle of the cerebrum that divides the cerebrum into the right and left hemispheres longitudinal fissure
ine of the 3 parts of the brain stem. the most essential part of the brain in that it contains the cardiac, vasomotor, and respiritory centers of the brain medulla oblongata
the 3 layers of protective membranes that surround tha brain and spinal cord meninges
small, neuroglial calls found in the intnerstitial tissue of the nervous system that engulf cellular debree, waste products, and pathogens within nerve tissue microglia
the uppermost part of the brain stem midbrain
efferent nerves motor nerves
a protective sheath that covers the axons of many nerves in the body; it acts as an electrical insulator and helps to speed the conduction of nerve impulses myelin sheath
uncontrolled, sudden attacks of sleep narcolepsy
a cordlike bundle of nerve fibers that transmit impulses to and from the brain and spinla cord to other parts of the body; a nerve is macroscopic nerve
the injection of a local anesthetic along the course of a nerve or nerves t oeliminate sensation to the area supplied by the nerve(s); also called conduction anesthesia nerve block
severe, sharp, spasmlike pian that extends along the course of one or more nerves neuralgia
inflammation of a nerve neuritis
the supporting tissue of the nervous system neuroglia
a physician who specializes in treating the diseases and disorders of the nervous system neurologist
the study of the nervous system and its disorders neurology
a nerve cell neuron
a physician who specializes in surgery of the nervous system neurosurgeon
any surgery involving the nervous system neurosurgery
a chemical substance within the body that activates or inhibits the transmission of nerve impulses between synapse neurotransmitter
rigidity of the neck; the neck is resistent to flexion. the condition is seen in patients with meningitis nuchal rigidity
blockage occlusion
a type of neurological cell found in the interstitial tissue of the nervoussysrem; its dendrite projections coil around the axons of many neurons to form the myelin sheath oligodendrocyte
soothing palliative
paralysis of the lower extremities and trunk; usually due to spinal cord injuries paraplegia
nerves of the autonomic nervous system that regulate involuntar, essential body functions such as slowing the heart rate, increasing peristalis of the intestines, increasing glandular secretions and relaxing sphincters paasympathetic nerves
copying or producing th esame effects as those of parasympathetic nerves; "to mimic" parasympathomimetic
a sensation of numbness or tingling parathesia
the part of the nervous system outside the central nervous system, consisting of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves peripheral nervous system
the process by which certain cells engulf and destroy microorganisms and cellular debris phagocytosis
the innermost of the 3 membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord pia mater
a small cone-shaped structure located in the diencephalon of the brain; thoguth to be involved in regulating the body's clock: produces melatonin pineal body
pineal body pineal gland
a network of interwoven nerves plexus
the part of the brain that is located between the medulla oblongat and the midbrain; it acts as a bridge t oconnect the medulla oblongata to the cerebellum to the upper portion of the brain pons
paralysis of all four extremities and the trunk of the body; casued by injury to the spinal cord at the level of the cervical vertebrae quadriplegia
the surgical resection of a spinal nerve root; a procedure performed to relieve pain als ocalled a rhizotomy radiculotomy
Created by: sarah joy