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endocrine system bodys system that controls growth, development, and responses to the environment by releasing chemical signals into the bloodstream
central nervous system (CNS) the brain and spinal cord; its main function is to control the flow of information in the body
peripheral nervous system (PNS) all of the parts of the nervous system except for the brain and spinal cord; includes the crainal nerves and nerves of the neck, chest, lower back and pelvis
neuron a nerve cell that is specialized to receive and conduct electrial impulses
dendrite a cytoplasmic extension of a neuron that recieves stimuli
axon an elongated extention of a neuron that carries impulses away from the cell body
resting potential difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of a neuron; contains the potential energy needed to transmit the impulse
sodium-potassium pump a carrier protein that uses ATP to actively transport sodium ions out of a cell and potassium ions into the cell
action potential a suden change in the polarity of the membrane of a neuron, gland cell, or muscle fiber that facilitates the transmission of electrical impulses
synapse the junction at which the end of an axon of a neuron meets the end of a dendrite or the cell body of another neuron or meets another cell.
terminal end of the neuron's axon from which neurotransmitters are relased to sitimulate an adjacent cell
neurotransmitter a chemical substance that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse
hormone a substance that is made in one cell or tissue and that causes a change in another cell or tissue located in a different part of the body
gland organ that produces and releases chemicals that affect the activities of other tissues
hypothalamus the region of the brain that coordinates the activities of the nervous and endocrine systems and that controls many body activities related to homeostasis
pituitary gland area in the middle of the brain that makes and releases hormones that control cell growht and water levels in the blood.
pathogen a microorganism, another organism, a virus, or a protein that causes diesase; an infectious agent
vector in biology, any agent, such as a plasmid or a virus, that can incorporate foreign DNA and transfer DNA from one organism to another; an intermedaite host that transfers a pathogen or a parasite to another organism
phagocyte (white blood cell) cell that destroys other cells by surrounding and engulfing them
T cell white blood cell that matures in the thyus and destroys infected body cells by cuasing them to burst; also called a T-lympocyte
B cell a white blood cell that matures in bones and makes antibodies
antibody a protein that reacts to a specific antigen or that inactivates or destroys toxins
interferon type of protein, produced by body cells, that prevents viruses from replicating in infected cells.
inflammation a protective response of tissue affected b disease or injury; characterized by pain, swelling, redness, and heat
antigen protein marker that helps the immune system identify foreign particles
humoral immunity immune response that relies on B cells to produce antibodies to help fight infection
cellular immunity immune response that relies on T cells destroy infected body cells
vaccine a substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens and introduced inot a body to produce immunity
allergy a physical response to an antigen, which can be a common substance that produces little or no response in the general population
allergen a substance that causes an allergic reaction
Created by: lpgullett