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NHS-Biology Review#2

Biology Review 15-16

Why would an antibiotic not be as effective after multiple uses? The bacteria that survive reproduce, passing on their genes for antibiotic resistance to the next generation.
Many of the proteins in the human body are enzymes that catalyze chemical reactions. What is the relationship between enzymes and activation energy? When an enzyme catalyzes a reaction, it decreases the activation energy of the reaction.
What greenhouse gas is released when fossil fuels are burned and also plays a major role in photosynthesis? carbon dioxide
Which two substances are the products of cellular respiration and the reactants of photosynthesis? carbon dioxide and water
If a plant has drooping leaves, what happens when the plant is watered? The environment changes from hypotonic to hypertonic, the central vacuole swells, and the leaves stop drooping.
What type of evidence is NOW available to support Darwin's theory, but was not available during Darwin's time? Comparing the DNA sequences of different species
Today, biologists classify sponges as animals rather than plants. What evidence supports today's classification? Sponges cannot make their own food.
Charles Darwin speculated that, over time, natural selection could change a population to the point of producing a new species.
An example of natural selection within a population is A small number of grapevines are resistant to an insect infestation, allowing them to survive and reproduce.
Sexual reproduction increases genetic variation in a population. Which is a way that meiosis and fertilization lead to genetic variation? Alleles are recombined when gametes from different parents join together.