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ANS Drugs

Pharmacology Autonomic Nervous System Drugs

Promote the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine Cholinergic drugs
Two classes of Cholinergic drugs Cholinergic Agonists and Anticholinesterase drugs
These drugs work by stimulating cholinergic receptors, mimicking the action of acetylcholine Cholinergic Agonists drugs
These drugs produce their effects by inhibiting acetylcholinestrase which prevents the breakdown of acetylcholine. As a result, acetylcholine begins to accumulate and it's effects are prolonged. Anticholinesterase drugs
Cholinergic Agonists drugs are usually administered via Topically with eye drops, orally, or Sub Q
A drug overdose resulting in extreme muscle weakness and possible paralysis of the muscles used in respiration. Cholinergic Crisis
These to routes of administration are rarely used when administering Cholinergic agonists because they're almost immediately broken down by cholinesterase in the interstitial spaces between tissues and inside blood vessels. IM and IV
Cholinergic Agonists drugs reach peak levels within how many hours? 2
Cholinergic Agonists drug absorption is ________________ by food intake Decreased
Cholinergic Agonists drugs are metabolized by cholinestrase in which 4 areas? 1. muscarinic receptor sites 2. nicotinic receptor sites 3. plasma 4. Liver
Cholinergic Agonists drugs are excreted by the ______________ Kidney
Cholinergic Agonists drugs __________________ the production of saliva Stimulate
Cholinergic Agonists drugs ____________________ heart rate. decrease
Cholinergic Agonists drugs _________________ blood vessels. dilate
Cholinergic Agonists drugs ______________ pulmonary bronchioles. constrict
Cholinergic Agonists drugs _______________ activity of the GI tract. increase
Cholinergic Agonists drugs _______________ tone and contraction of the bladder. increase
Cholinergic Agonists drugs cause _______________ of the pupils constriction
Side effects of Cholinergic Agonists drugs nausea, vomiting, cramps, diarrhea and blurred vision
Before giving Cholinergic Agonists drugs, check for disorders such as ________________ that may be aggravated by these drugs. Alzheimer's
Cholinergic Agonists drugs should be taken on an ____________ stomach to lessen nausea and vomiting empty
____________ Anticholinesterase drugs have a short duration of action Reversible
_____________Anticholinesterase drugs have long-lasting effects and are used primarily as toxic insecticides Irreversable
___________ drugs can be used as an antidote for anticholinergic drugs, tricyclic antidepressants, belladonna alkaloids, and opiods Anticholinesterase
Extreme muscle weakness and severe respiratory difficulties Myasthenic crisis
______________ can be used to distinguish the difference between a toxic drug effect and myasthenic crisis. Edrophonium
When Edrophonium is used, suction equipment, O2, mechanical ventilation, and emergency atropine must be readily available in case __________ crisis occurs. cholinergic
__________ drugs/ cholinergic blockers; interrupt parasympathetic nerve impulses in the CNS and ANS. Anticholinergic
Anticholinergic drugs prevent __________________ from stimulating cholinergic receptors. acetylcholine
Anticholinergic drugs only block the ___________ receptor sites. muscarinic
Atropine, homatropine, ipratropium, and scopolamine are ______________ ______________ belladonna alkaloids
Glycopyrrolate and methscopolamine are ________________ derivatives of belladonna alkaloids. synthetic
Newer synthetic drugs such as benztropine, dicyclomine, and oxybutynin have __________ side effects. fewer
All _____________________ drugs are used to treat spastic or hyperactive conditions of the GI and urinary tracts because they relax muscles and decrease GI secretions anticholinergic
Atropine ____________ heart rate. increases
Antidyskinetics, antiemetics, antipsychotics, cyclobenzaprine, disopyramide, orphenadrine, tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants all ___________ the effects of anticholinergic drugs. increase
Anticholinesterase and cholinergic agonist _____________ the effects of anticholinergic drugs. decrease
The risk of digoxin toxicity ________ with the use of anticholinergic drugs. increases
Anticholinergic drugs are ________________________ in patients with glaucoma, myasthenia gravis, prostatic hyperplasia, reflux esophagitis, or GI obstructive disease. contraindicated
_________________ drugs are also called sympathomimetic drugs because they produce effects similar to those produced by the sympathetic nervous system. Adrenergic
Adrenergic drugs are classified into two groups based on their chemical structure _______________ and _______________. catecholamines and noncatecholamines
____________ cannot be taken orally because they're destroyed by digestive enzymes. catecholamines
Catecholamines __________ peripheral blood vessels. constrict
Catecholamines ____________ heart rate. increases
Catecholamines __________ the bronchi. dilate
Common catecholamines include: dobutamine, dopmine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and isoproterenol HCL
Catecholamines cause heart rate and blood pressure to _____________. increase
___________ produces abnormal heart rhythms such as premature ventricular contractions and fibrillation. Epinephrine
Catecholamines that stimulate _______-_____________ receptors are used to treat low blood pressure caused by loss of vasomotor tone and blood loss. alpha-adrenergic
Catecholamines that stimulate _______-_____________ receptors are used to treat bradycardia, heart block, and low cardiac output beta-adrenergic
Because it is believed that Beta-adrenergic blockers make the heart more responsive to defibrillation, they are used to treat ventricular fibrillation, cardiac arrest and ________. asystole
Catecholamines that exert _______ __-_____________ activity are used to treat acute and chronic bronchial asthma, emphysema, bronchitis, and allergic reactions to drugs. beta2-adrenergic
Catecholamine epinephrine may cause _____________ in diabetic patients. hyperglycemia
____________ antidepressants used with catecholamines can lead to hypertension. Tricyclic
____________ ______________ should be given before catecholamines. Cardiac glycosides
Catecholamines ________ be administered in the same IV line as other drugs. should not
Albuterol, ephedrine, and terbutiline are all examples of ____________________. Noncatecholamines
Noncatecholamines cause local or systemic __________ of blood vessels. constriction
Noncatecholamines cause nasal and eye decongestion and _______________ of the bronchioles. dilation
Turbutaline causes smooth muscle _____________. relaxtion
MAO inhibitors taken with Noncatecholamines can cause severe HTN and even _________. death
Created by: Cherriemd