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QuestionAnswer
What is the definition of Personality? A persons unique and relatively stable pattern of cognition, emotion and behavior.
what can your persona be called? a mask
where does your "personality" come from? genetics, environment
what are self-report tests? individual answers to questions about behavior, attitudes, etc, ex myers briggs
what are projective tests? individual responses to ambiguous stimuli- responses "reveal" personality, ex rorschach inkblot test, thematic apperception test
freud dreams dreams full of sexual symbols, dreams provide outlet for otherwise unacceptable impulses
three "psychic structures" Id, Superego, Ego
Id -instinctual drives
superego social standards of right and wrong, desires to do "correct" behavior, "moral principal"
ego mediates between id and superego, desires behavior to satisfy id and superego, "reality principal"
defense mechanisms projection, reaction formation, displacement
projection see your own problems in someone else, ex "he seems to be a very hostile person", "she is really promiscuous"
reaction formation your actions say differently than your words, "i dont find him attractive at all (even though you flirt)", "i think all porn should be outlawed (even though you look at it)"
displacement primarily with aggressive impulses, mad at professor, yell at roommate; mad at boss, spank child
libido sexual "energy" in need of gratification/outlet
erotogenic zones mouth, anus, genitals
id vs superego conflicts early in life id instinctual drives vs social standards of right and wrong
oral stage birth to 2 years, libido gratification: mouth, conflict: weaning from breastfeeding, if weaned harshly: pessimistic, envious, suspicious; if overindulged: optimistic, easygoing, gullible
anal stage 2 to 3 years, libido gratification: anus, conflict: toilet training, if trained harshly: anal retentive personality; if overindulged: anal expulsive personality
phallic stage 3 to 5 years, libido gratification: genitals, conflict: sexual attraction to opposite sex parent: penis envy, castration anxiety AND oedipus complex: son feelings for mother, electra complex: daughter feelings for mother
latency stage 6 to puberty, repression of sexual impulses
genital stage puberty onward, libido gratification: sexual relationships
psychosexual development oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latency stage, genital stage
conclusions on freud: positive sexual and aggressive impulses, childhood events, "pioneer" in study of human behavior, therapy techniques
conclusions on freud: negative studied small number of "neurotic" patients, cant be scientifically tested
learning change in behavior due to experience
conditioning a process through which organisms learn
types of conditioning classical conditioning, operant conditioning
classical conditioning organisms learn to exhibit reflexive responses to new stimuli, food/bell example, celebrity with neutral product: want to buy product
prior to conditioning (classical) unconditioned stimulus: food and unconditioned response: salivation
during conditioning (classical) unconditioned stimulus: food and neutral stimulus: bell
after conditioning (classical) conditioned stimulus: bell and conditioned response: salivation
the case of little albert classical conditioning example, john watson: rat, metal bars clanging at little boy
roberta rescorla bell/food example, proved that more consistency means stronger conditioning
classical conditioning: extinction disappearance of previously conditioned response
operant conditioning organisms learn from the consequences of past behavior *B.F. Skinner*
possible consequences of behavior reinforcement increases likelihood and punishment decreases likelihood
type of reinforcements (operant) positive and negative
positive reinforcement (operant) a pleasant stimulus is received: "skinner box" rat, bar, food
negative reinforcement (operant) an unpleasant stimulus is removed or avoided: lotion to poison ivy, bug repellant
types of punishments (operant) positive and negative
positive punishment (operant) an unpleasant stimulus is received: a child getting spanked
negative punishment (operant) a pleasant stimulus is taken away: class absence means points deducted
contiguity (operant) closeness, immediacy: contiguous consequences have strongest effect on behavior
expectancy of consequences: discriminative stimuli objects: light switch; locations/environments: church, concert; people: peers, faculty
skinners explanation of "thinking" speech is overt behavior, speech learned through operant conditioning (reinforcement and punishment), "thinking" is internal speech conclusion: "thinking" is behavior!!
albert bandura: example of observational learning video with blowup doll and woman getting cookies or punishment
types of observational learning vicarious reinforcement, vicarious punishment
human memory "information processing"
recall task produce information without assistance of retrival cues
recognition task identify information from a list
serial position effects primary effect, recency effect
primary effect better memory for information at beginning of series
recency effect better memory for information at end of series
retrospective memory remembering info from the past
prospective memory remembering to do something that was planned earlier
improving prospective memory immediately create reminder when you think about event/task
memory much info never encoded due to lack of attention: our attentional "resources" are very limited
short term "working" memory information in immediate conscious awareness
sub systems of short term memory auditory working memory and visuo spatial working memory
auditory working memory holds verbal information, maintenance rehearsal, distraction/interference
visuo spatial working memory holds images and spatial information, less deliberate rehearsal needed, less prone to loss by distraction
types of information stored in long term memory semantic, episodic, procedural
semantic facts like our first president
episodic life memories like family vaations
procedural how to do things physically like always knowing how to ride a bike once youve learned
monitor and keyboard short term memory: whats happening right now
cpu and hard drive long term memory: all information stored for later use
reconstructive nature of memory "memories" are generated from a combination of an actual event AND existing knowlage (thus can be inaccurate)
memories "interpretation, not a record"
reconstructive memory of witnesses car video "smashed" "ran into" glass or no glass; lost in a shopping mall, 29% remembered the false event
identity vs role confusion: conflict unresolved age 15 to 20, role confusion: lack of cohesive self image; "fragmented" self
identity vs role confusion: conflict resolved age 15 to 20, integrated identity: comfortable sense of self; unique but socially acceptable
self verification: dutton and lake behavior to confirm existing sense of identity
research on identity and "self verification" dutton and lake survey of racism, some told racist when werent, "homeless" man outside begging for money: people told racist gave more money
confederate planted person during research
intimacy vs isolation: conflict unresolved age 20 to 40, Isolation: loneliness; denial of intimacy needs
intimacy vs isolation: conflict resolved age 20 to 40, intimacy: able to develop close, loving, meaningful relationships
extraversion degree to which person enjoys/seeks social interaction; low: reserved, quiet, seeks time alone; high: outgoing, talkative, socially engaged
openness to experience degree to which person enjoy/seeks novel experiences, low: prefers routine, enjoys familiar things, not very creative or imaginative; high: prefers variety, enjoys novel things, creative and imaginative
emotional stability degree to which person can regulate own emotions, low: anxious, worried, temperamental; high: calm, composed, even tempered
conscientiousnss degree to which person is self disciplined and goal oriented, low: unreliable, impulsive, tends to quit; high: reliable, cautious, tends to persevere
agreeableness degree to which person is easy going and tolerant, low: uncooperative, confrontational, suspicious; high: cooperative, conciliatory, trusting
freud's books studies in hysteria, the psychopathology of everyday life
Created by: AspenRose