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Biotechnology

Biotech terms and definitions

QuestionAnswer
A condition which occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. Autoimmune disorders
The application of technology to the study or manipulation of living things. Biotechnology
Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C) and Thymine (T). The genes that make up your body by stringing together to form DNA. Chemical bases
To generate a population of genetically identical molecules, cells, plants or animals. Cloning
A United States Supreme Court case dealing with whether genetically modified organisms can be patented. Diamond vs. Chakrabarty
The genetic material of most living organisms. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
A test to identify and evaluate the genetic information called DNA in a person's cells. DNA fingerprinting
The anaerobic conversion of sugar to carbon dioxide and alcohol by yeast. Fermentation
A region of DNA that controls a hereditary characteristic. Genes
The branch of biology that deals with heredity, especially the mechanisms of hereditary transmission and the variation of inherited characteristics among similar or related organisms. Genetics
A laboratory technique used by scientists to change the DNA of living organisms. Genetic engineering
A technique for correcting defective genes responsible for disease development. Gene therapy
The finished sequence of the human genome. Human genome map
An international scientific research project to determine the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up DNA and to identify and map the approximately 20,000–25,000 genes of the human genome from both a physical and functional standpoint Human Genome Project
The study of our protection from foreign macromolecules or invading organisms and our body’s responses to them. Immunology
A naturally occurring substance that interferes with the ability of viruses to reproduce. Interferon
The study of biology at a molecular level. It chiefly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell. Molecular biology
A nucleotide is the monomer structural unit of nucleotide chains that form the nucleic acids RNA and DNA; in other words, the building blocks for DNA and RNA. Nucleotide
Any of a group of complex organic macromolecules that are composed of one or more chains of amino acids. Proteins
The joining — or recombining — of two pieces of DNA from different sources, such as from two different organisms. Recombinant DNA
One of the two main types of nucleic acid (DNA), that consists of strands of repeating nucleotides joined in chainlike fashion, but the strands are single (except in certain viruses), and it has the nucleotide uracil (U) where DNA has thymine (T) RNA (ribonucleic acid)
Or therapeutic cloning involves removing the nucleus of an unfertilized egg cell, replacing it with the material from the nucleus of a "somatic cell" (a skin, heart, or nerve cell, for example), and stimulating this cell to begin dividing. Somatic cell nuclear transfer
A class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differentiate into specialized cell types. Stem cells
introduced as a sedative drug in the late 1950s, then banned in the early 1960s after it was found to cause deformed limbs in the children of women who took it early in pregnancy. Thalidomide
An organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. Transgenic
The transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another, such as from pigs to humans. Xenotransplantation
Created by: jc44518