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Human Health


ADH Hormone which reduces loss of water in urine.
Aerobic Respiration Release of energy from food when oxygen is present.
Allele A version of a particular gene.
Amylase Enzyme which digests starch.
Anaemia Condition caused by lack of iron.
Angina Pain felt when flow restricted in coronary arteries.
Antibiotics Chemical produced by fungi which can kill bacteria.
Antibodies Produced by white cells to attack antigens.
Antigens Foreign chemicals, including protein, which trigger an immune response.
Artery Blood vessel which carries blood away from the heart.
Atrium Upper chamber of the heart.
Capillaries Minute blood vessels which form a network close to cells.
Carbohydrase Enzyme which digests carbohydrate.
Carbohydrate Sugar based food providing energy.
Carcinogen Chemicals which cause cancer.
Cartilage Smooth tissue which covers end of bones.
Cataract Clouding of the eye lens.
Cell Surface Membrane Surrounds cytoplasm and controls movement of materials in and out of the cell.
Chemotherapy Treatment using drugs.
Chromosomes Threads of genetic material in the nucleus.
Cilia Tiny hair like structures on surface of cells of airways.
Ciliary Muscles Muscles which alter the shape of the eye lens for focusing.
Clotting Process where blood cells are trapped in fibrin to form a clot.
Clumping Process where red blood cells stick together. NOT to be confused with clotting.
Coeliac Disease A condition where the immune system attacks gut lining, triggered by gluten.
Constrict Closing up or getting narrower.
Cornea Clear covering on eye.
Coronary Artery Artery that supplies heart muscle.
Cystic Fibrosis A genetic disorder where the person produces very sticky mucus.
Cytoplasm Region of cell in which most chemical reactions take place.
Deamination Breakdown of surplus amino acids.
Denatured Altered shape of an enzyme so it cannot work.
Diabetes Condition resulting in high blood sugar if not controlled.
Differentiation The process by which stem cells change to specialist cells.
Diffusion Net movement of particles from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.
Digestive Juice Juices containing enzymes, produced by the digestive system.
Dilate Open or get wider.
DNA Chemical which carries genetic code.
Dominant The characteristic which is shown when two different alleles are present.
Effectors Muscles or glands which respond to a stimuli.
Emulsification Breakdown of fat into droplets.
Endocrine glands Glands which secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream.
Enzyme A biological catalyst made of protein.
Epiglottis Flap which covers opening of trachea when swallowing.
Excretion Removal of waste materials produced by cells.
Fibre Insoluble food material found in vegetables.
Fibrin Insoluble fibres which form a clot.
Fibrinogen A soluble blood protein which changes to fibrin in clotting.
FSH Follicle stimulating hormone produced by the pituitary gland.
Gametes Sex cells
Gene A section of DNA which codes for the production of protein.
Genotype The genes present to control a characteristic.
Glucagon Hormone produced by pancreas which causes an increase in blood sugar.
Glucose A simple sugar, the most common energy source used in respiration.
Glycogen An insoluble carbohydrate made from glucose molecules.
Haemodialysis Treatment of blood in dialysis machine.
Haemoglobin Protein and iron compound which carries oxygen.
Heterozygous The person has two different alleles for a characteristic, e.g. Aa
Homeostasis The process by which the body maintains a constant internal environment.
Homozygous The person has two identical alleles for a characteristics, e.g. aa or AA
Hormone A chemical messenger produced by endocrine glands.
Hypothalamus Region of brain containing temperature and pressure receptors.
Insulin Hormone produced by pancreas which causes a reduction in blood sugar.
Lactic Acid Chemicals produced in anaerobic respiration.
Lens Focuses light onto the retina.
LH Luteinising hormone produced by the pituitary gland. Stimulates follicle to burst and release the ovum.
Ligaments Strong bands of connective tissue which hold bones together.
Lipase Enzyme which digests lipids.
Lipid Fat based food used for insulation and energy storage.
Lymphocyte White blood cell which produce antibodies.
Malnutrition Too much or too little food or lack of one or more essential nutrients.
Meiosis Cell division which halves the number of chromosomes to make gametes.
Metabolism The chemical reactions which take place in the body.
Microvilli Folds on cells on surface of villi.
Mineral Essential inorganic compounds needed for healthy growth, e.g. sodium chloride.
Mitochondria Cell structures which release energy in aerobic respiration.
Mitosis Cell division which produces two identical cells.
Motor Nerves Nerves which carry impulses from the central nervous system to effectors.
Mucus Fluid produced by cells to lubricate body tubes.
Mutation Spontaneous change in a gene or chromosome.
Nucleus Cell structure containing chromosomes and controls cell activity.
Oesophagus The gullet, the pipe which carries food from mouth to stomach.
Oestrogen Hormone produced by ovary which builds up the uterus lining.
Organ A structure made from several tissues with a particular function. E.g. Heart
Osmoregulation Control of water.
Osmosis Net movement of water from a region of high concentration to low water concentration.
Osteoporosis A condition where the bone mass is reduced.
Ovulation Release of egg from the ovary.
Pancreas Gland which produces insulin, glucagon and digestive enzymes.
Pathogens Organisms which cause disease.
Peristalsis Waves of muscle contraction.
Phagocyte White blood cell which engulfs pathogens.
Phenotype The physical appearance of a characteristic.
Pituitary Endocrine gland at base of brain.
Placenta Barrier between blood of mother and fetus which allows materials to diffuse across.
Plaque Sticky layer on teeth containing bacteria.
Plasma The liquid part of the blood.
Plasmid Ring of DNA found in bacteria.
Platelets Cell fragments in blood needed for clotting.
Progesterone Hormone produced by ovary.
Protease Enzyme which digests protein.
Protein Food used for growth and repair.
Puberty The age when the secondary sexual characteristics develop.
Radiotherapy Treatment using radiation.
Receptors Structures which detect stimuli.
Recessive A characteristic which is masked when the dominant allele is present.
Recipient The person who receives blood or organ.
Red blood cell Blood cell containing haemoglobin.
Reflex action An automatic response to a stimulus.
Respiration Release of energy from food.
Retina Contains light sensitive cells.
Ribosomes Cell structures which make protein.
Rickets Condition caused by lack of vitamin D.
Saliva Alkaline fluid containing amylase.
Salivary Glands Glands in cheek and under tongue.
Scurvy Condition caused by lack of vitamin C.
Sense organs Organs which contain receptor cells to detect external stimuli.
Sensory nerves Nerves which carry impulses from receptors to the central nervous system.
Sex Linked Gene The gene is situated on the X chromosome.
Solute A substance that dissolves in water.
Sperm Male sex cell.
Sprain Damage to ligaments.
Starvation Lack of food.
Strains Damage to muscle.
Suspensory Ligaments Small 'strings' which are attached to the eye lens.
Synovial fluid A fluid which lubricates joints and reduces friction.
Synovial Joint Joints which contain synovial fluid and can move easily.
System A group of organs which a shared function. E.g. circulatory system.
Tendon Joins muscle to bone.
Testosterone Hormone produced by testis.
Thermoregulation Control of temperature.
Thryoxin Hormone produced by thyroid gland which controls metabolic rate.
Thyroid Endocrine gland in neck.
Tissue A group of similar cells.
Transfusion Transfer of blood or blood products to a patient.
Tumour An abnormal growth of cells.
Urea Chemical made from excess amino acids found in urine.
Urine Solution of urea, salts and other compounds.
Valves Flaps to prevent backflow in circulation.
Vector A carrier of disease - causing organisms.
Veins Blood vessels which carry blood to the heart.
Ventricle Lower chamber in heart.
Villi Folds on surface of gut lining.
Vitamin Nutrient needed in small quantities for healthy growth.
Voluntary action An action which involves thinking by the brain.
White Blood Cell Blood cell of the immune system.
Zygote The first cell produced when the sperm fertilises the egg.
Created by: KerryWilliams



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