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EnviroScn Chp15

QuestionAnswer
How are oil sands extracted? By strip mining
Which energy source is the most abundant fossil fuel? Coal
Today’s Energy: > ____ % from nonrenewable resources – 80
What are the two nonrenewable resources fossil fuels & nuclear
As global consumption of fossil fuels continues to rise …so do CO2 emissions
Fossil fuels are rich in __________________, hydrocarbons
Fossil fuels are high in _________ energy – combustion releases much heat energy potential
Originated from partially decomposed organisms that lived _______________ million years ago (mya)
Instead of decomposing and immediately returning C(arbon) to atmosphere, _____________________________ C(arbon) stored in underground FF reservoir
Fossil fuels form over _________ years. millions of years
Fossil fuels form due to _____________ and ___________ high heat and pressure
______________ – an identified deposit (of mineral or fossil fuel) and is ___________ to extract Reserve / profitable
___________________________ due to use, price fluctuations, advances in tech, discoveries Amount changes
___________= energy returned – energy invested Net energy
_____________=energy returned / energy invested EROI
US has < _____ % oil reserves, but consumes > _____% of world’s oil 3 / 20
US heavily dependent on ______________ foreign oil cheaper
After extracted, _______________________ 100s differnt hydrocarbons in crude oil separated by dif boiling points crude oil is refined
Most oil refined into __________________ transportation fuel
World is nearing __________– point of max oil production peak oil production
___________________ expected afterwards; as demand continues to rise, shortages and higher prices will hurt global economy Energy Crisis
What are some nonrenewable substitutes for crude oil Oil shales and oil (tar) sands
What has large potential supply, but low EROI kerogen or bitumen converted into ‘synthetic’ oil
Enviro impacts of tar sands: •_________________ causes extensive land disturbance •_______________ use and pollution Surface mining and Heavy water
What is the cleanest-burning fossil fuel? Natural gas
One of the problems with natural gas is that METHANE ______ from wells. leaks
_____________________ uses much water and may pollute groundwater Hydraulic fracturing
Coal is the most ___________ fossil fuel abundant
What are the 3 grades of coal (_______________________________) anthracite, bituminous, lignite
Coal mainly used to __________________________ generate electricity at power plants
Enviro impacts of coal ____________ –Surface = greater land disturbance –Subsurface = greater occupational hazard mining
___________________ as S in exposed rock reacts w/ O2 and H20; acid leaches metals Acid mine drainage
Coal is the ____________ fossil fuel to burn dirtiest
‘____________’ technologies was prompted by Clean Air Act clean coal
Clean coal technologies have significantly reduced ________and ______ emissions soot and sulfur
Energy released from controlled, sustained ________ – splitting of a heavy unstable atom fission
Compared to chemical rxns, nuclear rxns ___________________ much more Energy
Most nuke power plants use ___ as fuel source uranium
______________ uses energy to inc conc. of U-235 Enrichment
__________________ (radioactive isotopes) release radiation as they decay Fission products
Most radioactive waste is from ________________. spent fuel
When a radioactive atom decays, it becomes a dif atom and emits ______________ radiation. ionizing
Each radioactive isotope has a fixed __________: time takes for it for ½ atoms of radioactive isotope to decay half-life
Hi-level radioactive waste (spent fuel rods) temporarily stored at ____________________ power plants
Growth of nuclear power has _________ decreased
Nuclear power plants have slowed being built due to high construction and decommissioning _______; heavily ____________ costs / subsidized
Why should we conserve energy? Saves money, Reduces pollution and other environmental impacts , Prolongs nonrenewable energy supplies, Buys time to phase in renewable energy
In transportation one way to increase fuel efficiency –raise ______________ standards CAFE
__________________: producing 2 useful forms of energy from the _______________ Cogeneration / same fuel source
Combined Heat and Power: heat is used (not ____________) as electricity is produced wasted
_______________: initial cost plus lifetime operating costs; lower for energy efficient products Life cycle cost
Created by: Hier snipe