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The root

Botany: The Plant Root

QuestionAnswer
What are the two main functions of roots? Storage and conduction
What is the first root that originates in the embryo? Primary root
What is another name for primary root? Taproot
What does the primary root give rise to? Lateral roots
What is the taproot and lateral root together called? Taproot system
What part of the system do the younger roots reside? At the bottom, near the root tip
In monocots, the primary root is short lived. Instead, main roots are borne from the stem. What are these main roots and lateral roots called? Fibrous root system
What is the main difference between taproot systems and fibrous root systems? Taproots can penetrate deeper into the soil than fibrous root systems
What are the factors that can effect how deeply a root can penetrate? Moisture, temperature, and composition of the soil
What is the purpose of the rootcap? It protects the apical meristem behind it
What are the slouched cells and growing root tip covered by? Mucigel- a slimy sheath which lubricates the root as it grows
What is the most distal cell to the root tip is the least determined part of the root apical meristem called? Promeristem
The region corresponding to the promeristem that becomes relatively inactive later on, even though the root is still growing Quiescent center
Region of actively dividing cells Apical meristem/Region of cell division
Behind the region of actively dividing cells, only a few mm in length. Above this region, the root doesn't increase in length. Region of elongation
Region most of the cells of the primary tissues mature. Root hairs are also produced in this region. Also called the "root hair zone" Region of maturation
What are the root hairs responsible for? The uptake of water and minerals
What's the purpose of the root epidermis? It allows the passage of water and minerals into the root. Mucigel covering the surface of roots provide an environment favorable to nitrogen-fixing bacteria
What part of the epidermis consists of mucigel, root hairs, slouched rootcap cells and associated microorganisms? Rhizosphere
What makes up the greatest area of the primary body of most roots? Cortex
What is the innermost layer of the cortex called? Endodermis
What is the endodermis characterized by the presence of? Casparian strips
What is the casparian strip made up of? Superin and sometimes lignin, making them hydrophobic and impermeable to water and dissolved ions. Blocking apoplastic movement but allowing symplastic movement
What are vascular tissues made up of? Xylem, phloem, pericycle
What are ground tissues made up of? Endodermis, cortex, epidermis
What are dermal tissues made up of? Epidermis
Protoxylem Part of primary xylem that differentiates during elongation of the plant part it is in
Part of primary xylem that differentiates after the portion of the plant part has finished elongating Metaxylem
Outermost layer of the cortex Exodermis
Completely surrounds the vascular tissue Pericycle
What are the roles of the pericycle 1.) In plants undergoing secondary growth, it contributes to the vascular cambium, giving rise to cork cambium
Continue from #31 Lateral roots arise in the pericycle
Secondary growth in roots and stems consist of? Secondary vascular tissues and periderm.
True or false: monocots usually undergo secondary growth False
How is secondary growth initiated? By meristematic procambial cells located between primary xylem and primary phloem
How are secondary vascular tissues added to the root? By repeated divisions toward the inside and outside.
What 3 tissue layers constitute the periderm? Cork, cork cambium, and phelloderm
Going from outside to inside what are in the woody plant? Remnants of cortex and epidermis,periderm,pericycle,1st phloem fibers,2nd phloem,vascular cambium, 2nd xylem, 1st xylem
How do you make a root primordium? Cell division of endodermis and pericycle
What are plant examples that use air roots as prop roots? Maize, mangrove, banyan tree, and some palms
What fruits or veggies act as roots? Carrots, sweet potatoes
What fruits or veggies act as stems? Potatoes
Created by: Patrickburkett12