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FA-2016 neuro pg 453

firstaid neuro page 453( based of FA 2016)

what are the signal transmitting cells of nervous system? neurons
how often do neurons divide? permanent cells - do not divide in adulthood
what are neurons? signal relating cells with dendrites(receive input), cell body and axon(sends output)
what do dendrites do? receive input
what do axons do? sends output
cell body and dendrite can be stained how? stained via nissl substance (stains RER)
why axons not stained? no RER in the axon
what happens if axon is injured? it undergoes wallerian degeneration
what is wallerian degeneration? degeneration distal to injury and axonal retraction proximally
what is the work of wallerian degeneration? allows for potential regeneration of axon(if in PNS)
function of axon? physical Support, Repair, K+ metabolism, removal of excess neurotransmitter, component of BBB, glycogen fuel reserve buffer ( SRK is BG Removing excess neurotransmitter)
how do astrocyte respond to neural injury? by Reactive gliosis
what is the marker for astocyte? GFAP
astrocyte is derived from what? neuroectoderm
what is microglia? phagocytic scavenger cell of the neruvous system (mesodermal, mononuclear origin)
germ layer origin of microglia? mesoderm
how do microglia stain with nissl stain? not readily discernible with nissl stain
what happens to microglia in HIV? HIV inected microglia fuse to form giant cell in the CNS
what is the function of myelin? wraps and insulates axons : 1) increase space constant 2) increase conduction velocity
fuction (particularly increase condution velocity) of myelin result in what action? saltatory conduction of action potential between node of ranvier, where there are high concentration of sodium channel
what makes myelin in CNS? oligodendrocyte
what makes myelin in PNS? schwann cells
each schwann cell myelinate how many PNS axon? 1 PNS axon
function of schwann cell (similar to wallerian degeneration) promotes axonal regeneration
schwann cell derived from where? neural crest
proper function of schwann cell? increase condution velocity via saltatory conduction at node of Ranvier, where there is high concentration of Na+ channel
schwann cells are destroyed in what disease? Guillian barre syndrome
where is vestibular schwanoma(acoustic neuroma) located? located in the internal acoustic meatus(CN VIII)
if acoustic neuroma is bilateral what is it associated with? associated with Neurofibromatosis type 2
each oligodendrocyte myelinate how many CNS axon? multiple axon (upto 30)
what is the predominant glial cell in white matter? oligodendroglia
how does oligodendroglia appear on H & E? fried egg apprearenace
what are the disease if oligodendroglia is injured? MS / Progressive multifocal leuckoencephalopathy (PML) / leukodystrophies
oligodendroglia derived form what? neuroectoderm
Created by: nepal.sarthak1