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cell division words

mitosis meiosis

TermDefinition
Mitosis Is a part of the cell cycle in which chromosomes in a cell nucleus are separated into two identical sets of chromosomes, and each set ends up in its own nucleus.
Cytokinesis Is the physical process of cell division, which divides the cytoplasm of a parental cell into two daughter cells.
Replication The process of copying a double-stranded DNA molecule.
Cell cycle Is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
Chromosomes A threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
Chromatid Is one copy of a newly copied chromosome which is still joined to the other copy by a single centro mere. Before replication, one chromosome is composed of one DNA molecule.
Centromere The point on a chromosome by which it is attached to a spindle fiber during cell division.
Chromatin The material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria (i.e., Eukaryotas) are composed.
Diploid Containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
Interphase The resting phase between successive mitotic divisions of a cell, or between the first and second divisions of meiosis.
Crossing over The exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes, resulting in a mixture of parental characteristics in offspring.
Tetrad A group or set of four.
Synapse A junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a minute gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter.
Polar bodies Each of the small cells that bud off from an oocyte at the two meiotic divisions and do not develop into ova.
Gametogenesis The process in which cells undergo meiosis to form gametes.
Gonad An organ that produces gametes; a testis or ovary.
Gamete A mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
Ovum A mature female reproductive cell, especially of a human or other animal, that can divide to give rise to an embryo usually only after fertilization by a male cell.
Sperm Is the male "gamete" or sex cell. It combines with the female "gamete," called an ovum, to form a zygote.
Haploid Having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
Created by: paula andrea s