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cell divions words

miosis and mitosis

TermDefinition
mitosis Mitosis is a part of the cell cycle in which chromosomes in a cell nucleus are separated into two identical sets of chromosome.
cytokinesis Cytokinesis is the physical process of cell division, which divides the cytoplasm of a parental cell into two daughter cells. It occurs concurrently with two types of nuclear division called mitosis and meiosis, which occur in animal cells.
replication makes a copy of itself. DNA replication or DNA synthesis, the process of copying a double-stranded DNA molecule. Semiconservative replication, mechanism of DNA replication
cell cycle The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
chromosomes Chromosomes are thread-like structures located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells. Each chromosome is made of protein and a single molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Passed from parents to offspring,.
chromatid is one copy of a newly copied chromosome which is still joined to the other copy by a single centromere. Before replication, one chromosome is composed of one DNA molecule.
centromere The centromere is the part of a chromosome that links sister chromatids or a dyad. During mitosis, spindle fibers attach to the centromere via the kinetochore.
chromatin Chromatin is a complex of DNA and proteins that forms chromosomes within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells
diploid Having two sets of chromosomes or double the haploid number of chromosomes in the germ cell, with one member of each chromosome pair derived from the ovum and one from the spermatazoon. The diploid number, 46 in humans, is the normal
interphase Interphase is the phase of the cell cycle in which a typical cell spends most of its life. During this phase, the cell copies its DNA in preparation for mitosis.
crossing over Chromosomal crossover (or crossing over) is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes during sexual reproduction.
tetrad A group or set of four. A tetravalent atom, radical, or element. A group of four chromatids formed from each of a pair of homologous chromosomes that split longitudinally during the prophase of meiosis.
synapsis Synapsis (also called syndesis) is the pairing of two homologous chromosomes that occurs during meiosis. It allows matching-up of homologous pairs prior to their segregation, and possible chromosomal crossover
polar bodies A polar body is a small haploid cell that is formed concomitantly as an egg cell during oogenesis, but which generally does not have the ability to be fertilized. When certain diploid cells in animals undergo cytokinesis after meiosis to produce egg cell
gametogenesis Gametogenesis is a biological process by which diploid or haploid precursor cells undergo cell division and differentiation to form mature haploid gametes.
gonad A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is an endocrine gland that produces the gametes (germ cells) of an organism. In the female of the species the reproductive cells are the egg cells, and in the male the reproductive cells are the sperm.
gamete a mature sexual reproductive cell, as a sperm or egg, that unites with another cell to form a new organism. ... But any individual sex-cell, or gamete, cannot (according to his view) bear both Dominant.
ovum/ova Ova are made and released by a female's ovaries. At birth, a female has all of her eggs, and from puberty, she releases an egg once a month until none are left.
sperm Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed"). In the types of sexual reproduction known as anisogamy and its subtype oogamy, there is a marked difference in the size of the gametes.
haploid Haploid is the term used when a cell has half the usual number of chromosomes. A normal eukaryote organism is composed of diploid cells, one set of chromosomes from each parent. However, after meiosis, the number of chromosomes in gametes is halved.
Created by: jeffery18