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FA-2016 neuro pg 451

firstaid neuro page 451( based of FA 2016)

QuestionAnswer
what happens in neural tube defect? neuropore fail to fuse(4th week)>> persistent connection between amniotic cavity and spinal canal
neural tube defect are associated with what? low folic acid intake before conception and during pregnancy
what are lab defect in the neural tube defect? 1)elevated alpha feto protein in amniotic fluid and maternal serum 2)increase AChE in amnotic fluid is a confirmatory test
why AChE can be measured in NTD? Because fetal AChE in CSF transudate across defect into the amniotic fluid
what is spina bifida occulta? Failure of the spinal canal to close but no structural herniation.
spina bifida occulta is usually seen where? lower vertebral level
status of dura in spina bifida occulta? intact
spina bifida occulta is associated with what? tuft of hair or skin dimple at level of bony defect
what is meningocele? meninges(not spinal cord) herniate through spinal canal defect.
What is the level of AFP in Meningocele? elevated AFP (normal AFP in Spina bifida occulta)
what is meningomyelocele? Meninges and spinal cord herniate through spinal canal defect
Meningomyelocele is seen with what? Arnold chairi malformation type II
What is AFP level in Meningomyelocele? Elevated AFP
what is anencephaly? malformation of anterior neural tube resulting in no forebrain, open calvarium("frog like appeareance)
clinical finding in anencephaly? increase AFP, Polyhydraminos(no swallowing center in brain)
why polyhydraminos in anencephaly? because no swallowing center in brain
anencephaly is associated with what? maternal diabetes type 1
forebrain anomalies? anencephaly and holoprosencephaly
what is holoprosencephaly? failure of left and right hemisphere to seperate.
in what week holoprosencephaly seen? 5-6 wk
etiology of holoprosencephaly? mutation in sonic hedgehog signaling pathway
moderate form of holoprosencephaly has what? cleft lip/palate ( also seen in patau>trisomy 13 and fetal alcohol syndrome)
severe form of holoprosencephaly has what? cyclopia
what are Posterior fossa malformations? arnold chairi malformation and dandy walker
what is arnold chairi malformation? herniation of cerebellar tonsils and vermis through foramen magnum with aquductal stenosis and hydrocephalus
arnold chairi malformation is associated with what? lumbosacral myelomeningocele
paralysis of arnold chairi at what level? below the defect
what is Dandy walker syndrome? agenesis of cerebellar vermis and splenium with cystic enlargement of 4th ventricle
which fossa is filled by dandy walker? enlarged posterior fossa
Dandy waker syndrome is associated with what? non communicating hydrocephalus and spinabifida
Created by: nepal.sarthak1