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firstaid neuro1

firstaid neuro

what happens in neural development between day 18-day 21 neural plate+notocord>> neural crest>> neural tube and neural crest cells
notochord induces overlying ectoderm to differentiate into what? neuroectoderm and neural plate
neural plate gives rise to? neural crest cells and neural tube
notochord becomes what? notochord becomes neucleus pulposus of InterVertebralDisk in adult
name and function of dorsal part of the neural tube? Alar: sensory
name and function of ventral part of neural tube? Basal: Motor
3 primary vesicle of developing brain? 1)Forebrain (prosencephalon) 2)Midbrain (mesencephalon) 3)Hindbrain (rhombencephalon)
5 secondary vesicle? telencephalon diencephalon mesenchephalon metencephalon myelenchephalon
forebrain(prosencephalon) gives rise to which secondary vesicle? Telencephalon and Diencephalon
midbrain (mesencephalon) gives rise to which secondary vesicle? Mesencephalon
hindbrain (rhombincephalon) gives rise to which secondary vesicle? Metencephaon Myelencephalon
wall of telencephalon gives rise to? cerebral hemisphere
cavity of telencephalon gives rise to? lateral ventricle
wall of diencephalon gives rise to ? thalamus
cavity of diencephalon gives rise to? third ventricle
wall of mesencephalon gives rise to? midbrain
cavity of mesencephalon gives rise to? aqueduct
wall of metencephalon gives rise to ? pons and cerebellum
cavity of metencephalon gives rise to upper part of 4th ventricle
wall of myelencephalon gives rise to? medulla
cavity of myelencephalon gives rise to ? lower part of 4th ventricle
what arises from neuroectoderm? CNS neuron, ependymal cells,oligodendrocyte, astrocyte (NEOA)
CNS Neuron arise from neuroectoderm
ependymal cells arise from neuroectoderm
what does ependymal cells line? inner lining of ventricle and makes CSF
oligodendrocyte arises from neuroectoderm
astrocyte arise from neuroectoderm
PNS neuron arise from neural crest
schwann cells arise from neural crest
neural crest gives rise to pns neuron and schwann cells
Mesoderm gives rise to? microglia
microglia are like macrophages, originate from mesoderm
what happens in neural tube defect? neuropore fail to fuse(4th week)>> persistent connection between amniotic cavity and spinal canal
neural tube defect are associated with what? low folic acid intake before conception and during pregnancy
what are lab defect in the neural tube defect? 1)elevated alpha feto-protein in amniotic fluid and maternal serum 2)increase AChE in amnotic fluid is a confirmatory test
why AChE can be measured in NTD? Because fetal AChE in CSF transudate across defect into the amniotic fluid
what is spina bifida occulta? Failure of the spinal canal to close but no structural herniation.
spina bifida occulta is usually seen where? lower vertebral level
status of dura in spina bifida occulta? intact
spina bifida occulta is associated with what? tuft of hair or skin dimple at level of bony defect
what is meningocele? meninges(not spinal cord) herniate through spinal canal defect.
What is the level of AFP in Meningocele? elevated AFP (normal only in spina bifida occulta)
what is meningomyelocele? Meninges and spinal cord herniate through spinal canal defect
Meningomyelocele is seen with what? Arnold chairi malformation type II
What is AFP level in Meningomyelocele? Elevated AFP
what is anencephaly? malformation of anterior neural tube resulting in no forebrain, open calvarium("frog like appeareance")
clinical finding in anencephaly? increase AFP, Polyhydraminos(no swallowing center in brain)
why polyhydraminos in anencephaly? because no swallowing center in brain
anencephaly is associated with what? maternal diabetes type 1
forebrain anomalies? anencephaly and holoprosencephaly
in what week holoprosencephaly seen? 5-6 wk
etiology of holoprosencephaly? mutation in sonic hedgehog signaling pathway
moderate form of holoprosencephaly has what? cleft lip & palate / holoprosencephaly also seen in patau-trisomy 13 and fetal alcohol syndrome
severe form of holoprosencephaly has what? cyclopia
what are Posterior fossa malformations? arnold chairi malformation and dandy walker
what is arnold chairi malformation? herniation of cerebellar tonsils and vermis through foramen magnum with aquductal stenosis and hydrocephalus
arnold chairi malformation is associated with what? lumbosacral myelomeningocele and syringomyelia
paralysis of arnold chairi at what level? below the defect
what is Dandy walker syndrome? agenesis of cerebellar vermis and splenium with cystic enlargement of 4th ventricle
which fossa is filled by dandy walker? enlarged posterior fossa
Dandy walker syndrome is associated with what? non communicating hydrocephalus and spinabifida
what is syringomyelia? cystic cavity within the spinal cord (if central canal >> hydromyelia)
which fibers of spinal cord are damaged in syringomyelia? anterior spinal commisural fiber
syringomyelia is associated with what? Arnold chiari malformation type II, trauma and tumor
what is Arnold chiary malformation type I? >3-5mm cerebellar tonsilar ectopia / Manifests and headache and cerebellar symptoms
where does syringomyelia most commonly occur? C8-T1
Clinical feature of syringomyelia? Cape like - bilateral loss of pain and temperature sensation in upper extremities(fine touch sensation is preserved)
syringomyelia may cause what syndrome? horner syndrome (Ptosis, anhydrosis, miosis)
which embryonic structure forms tongue? 1st and 2nd branchial arches form anterior 2/3rd of tongue / 3rd and 4th branchial arches form posterior 1/3rd of tongue
sensation of tongue? General sensation (9) and taste sensation (9) - post 1/3rd (99) General sensation (5) and taste sensation (7) - anterior 1/3rd (57)
taste sensation is carried via ? CN 7(anterior 2/3rd) ,9(posterior 1/3rd) , 10- extremely posterior (solitary nucleus)
pain sensation in tongue is carried via? CN V3 - anterior (53), 9 -posterior, 10 - extremely posterior
motor innervation in tongue? CN 10 ,12
muscle of tongue is derived from? occipital myotomes(somatomeres)
Motor innervation to tongue specifically? Motor innervation is via CN 12 to hypoglossus, genioglossus, styloglossus via CN 10 to palatoglossus
function of hypoglossus? retract and depresses the tongue
function of genioglossus? protrude the tongue
function of styloglossus? draws side of tongue upward to create trough for swalloing
function of palatoglossus? elevate posterior tongue during swallowing
what are the signal transmitting cells of nervous system? neurons
how often do neurons divide? permanent cells - do not divide in adulthood
what are neurons? signal relaying cells with dendrites(receive input), cell body and axon(sends output)
what do dendrites do? receive input
what do axons do? sends output
cell body and dendrite can be stained how? stained via nissl substance (stains RER)
why axons not stained? no RER in the axon
what happens if axon is injured? it undergoes wallerian degeneration
what is the work of wallerian degeneration? allows for potential regeneration of axon(if in PNS)
function of axon? physical Support, Repair, K+ metabolism, removal of excess neurotransmitter, component of BBB, glycogen fuel reserve buffer ( SRK is BG Removing excess neurotransmitter)
how do astrocyte respond to neural injury? by Reactive gliosis
what is the marker for astocyte? GFAP
astrocyte is derived from what? neuroectoderm
what is microglia? phagocytic scavenger cell of the neruvous system (mesodermal, mononuclear origin)
germ layer origin of microglia? mesoderm
how do microglia stain with nissl stain? not readily discernible with nissl stain
what happens to microglia in HIV? HIV inected microglia fuse to form giant cell in the CNS
what is the function of myelin? wraps and insulates axons : 1) increase space constant 2) increase conduction velocity
fuction (particularly increase condution velocity) of myelin result in what action? saltatory conduction of action potential between node of ranvier, where there are high concentration of sodium channel
what makes myelin in CNS? oligodendrocyte
what makes myelin in PNS? schwann cells
each schwann cell myelinate how many PNS axon? 1 PNS axon
function of schwann cell? promotes axonal regeneration
schwann cell derived from where? neural crest
proper function of schwann cell? increase condution velocity via saltatory conduction at node of Ranvier, where there is high concentration of Na+ channel
schwann cells are destroyed in what disease? Guillian barre syndrome
where is vestibular schwanoma(acoustic neuroma) located? located in the internal acoustic meatus(CN VIII)
if acoustic neuroma is bilateral what is it associated with? associated with Neurofibromatosis type 2
each oligodendrocyte myelinate how many CNS axon? multiple axon (upto 30)
what is the predominant glial cell in white matter? oligodendrocyte
how does oligodendroglia appear on H & E? fried egg apprearenace
what are the disease if oligodendroglia is injured? MS / Progressive multifocal leuckoencephalopathy (PML) / leukodystrophies
what are the 2 type of free nerve ending? C and A delta
what type of fibers are C fibers? slow, unmyelinated fibers
what type of fibers are A delta fibers? fast myelinated fibers
what are the location of A delta and C fibers? all skin, epidermis, some viscera
what are the senses carried by A delta and C fibers? pain and temperature
what type of fibers are meissner corpuscles? large myelinated fibers that quickly adapt
what is the location of meissners corpuscles? glabrous(hairless) skin
what are the senses carried by Meissners corpuscle? Dynamic, fine/ light touch and position sense
what are pacinian corpuscles? large myelinated fibers that adapt quickly
waht are the location of pacinian corpuscles? deep skin layers, ligaments and joints
waht are the senses carried by pacinian corpuscle? vibration and pressure
what are merkel discs? large myelinated fibers that adapt slowly
what are the location of merkel discs? finger tip, superficial skin
what are the senses carried by merkel discs? pressure and deep static touch(eg: shapes, edges), position
what does endoneurium invest? invests single nerve fiber layers
endoneurial inflammatory infiltrate present in? GBS
what does perineurium(permeable barrier) surround? surrounds fascicle of nerve fibers
what is to be rejoined for limb attachment during microsurgery? perineurium
what is epineurium? dense connective tissue that surrounds entire nerve(fascicle and blood vessels)
what is ruffini corpuscle? dendritic ending with capsule that adapt slowly
location of ruffini corpuscle finger tip , joints
what are the senses carried by ruffini corpuscle? Pressure, slippage of objects along surface of skin, joint angle change
what is the location of synthesis of acetylcholine neurotransmitter? Basal nucleus of Meynert
what is the location of synthesis of dopamine neurotransmitter ventral tegmentum, SNpc
what is the location of synthesis of GABA neurotransmitter nucleus accumbens
what is the location of synthesis of norepinephrine neurotransmitter locus ceruleus
what is the location of synthesis of serotonin neurotransmitter raphe nucleus
function of BBB? preventing circulating blood substances form entering the CSF/CNS
what is BBB formed from? 1) tight junction between non-fenestrated Capilary endothelial cells 2)Basement membrane 3)Astrocyte foot processes @ABC
how does glucose and AA cross BBB? cross by carried mediated transport mechanism
how does non-polar or lipid soluble substance cross BBB? cross rapidly via diffusion
infarction and neoplasm destroys endothelial cell tight junction and cause? vasogenic edema
other notable barriers? blood testis barrier AND maternal fetal blood barrier of placenta
function of hypothalamus? TAN-HATS 1) thirst and water balance 2) adenohypophysis control( regulate ant pituitary) 3) neurohypophysis release hormones produced in the hypothalamus 4) hunger 5) autonomic regulation 6) temperature regulation 7) sexual urges
what does supraoptic nucleus of hypothalamus make? ADH
what does paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus make? Oxytocin
what does hypothalamus make? ADH: by Supraoptic nucleus oxytocin: by paraventricluar nucleus
what carries ADH and oxytocin? neurophysins
where does neurophysins carry ADH and oxytocin? posterior pitutary then stored and released
what is the function of lateral area of hypothalamus ? mediates hunger
what happen if the lateral area of hypothalamus is destroyed? anorexia , failure to thrive(infant) { one becomes slimmer :p)
lateral area of hypothalamus is stimulated by? ghrelin
lateral area of hypothalamus is inhibited by? leptin
what is the function of ventromedial area of hypothalamus ? mediates satiety
what happens if ventromedial area of hypothalamus is destroyed? destruction(eg :craniopharyngioma) causes hyperphagia {grow fat}
ventromedial area of hypothalamus is stimulated by? leptin
anterior hypothalamus function? cooling and parasympathetic
posterior hypothalamus function? heating and sympathetic
suprachaismatic nucleus of hypothalamus function? circadian rhythm
sleep cycle is regulated by? circadian rhythm
circadian rhythm is driven by? Suprachaiasmatic nucleus of hypothalamus
circadian rhythm controls nocturnal release of ? ACTH, Prolactin, melatonin and norepinephrine (@MAPN)
sequence of melatonin secretion by SCN? suprachaiasmatic nucleus>> norepinephrine release >> pineal gland>> melatonin
suprachaismatic nucleus is regulated by? environment(eg; light)
2 stage of sleep? REM and NREM
extraocular movement occurs during which sleep? REM sleep
extraocular movement during REM sleep due to ? activity of PPRF(paramedian pontine reticular formation/conjugate gaze center)
REM sleep occurs every ------ minute? 90 mins. duration increase throug out the night
what is associated with decrease REM sleep and delta wave sleep? alcohol, benzodiazepines and barbiturates decreases both BUT norepinephrine decreases REM sleep(no delta wave)
what does DDAVP mimic? ADH (imipramine may also be used but not used due to advese side effect)
what is used for night terror and sleepwalking? benzodiazepines
sleep stage AWAKE(eyes open). what does it signify? alert and active mental concentration
what eeg is seen in AWAKE(eyes open) condition? beta( highest frequency and lowest amplitude)
sleep stage AWAKE (eyes closed). what eeg wave is seen? alpha
what is Non REM sleep stage N1? it is light sleep
what eeg is seen in Non REM sleep stage N1? theta
what is Non REM sleep stage N2? deeper sleep
what conditon is seen in Non REM sleep stage N2? bruxism
what eeg is seen in Non REM sleep stage N2? sleep spindle and K complexes
what is Non REM sleep stage N3? deepest non REM sleep(slow wave sleep)
what condition is seen in Non REM sleep stage N3? sleepwalking, night terrors and bedwetting
what eeg pattern is seen in Non REM sleep stage N3? delta(lowest frequency, hightest amplitude)
what happens in REM sleep? 1) loss of motor tone 2) increase brain use 3) increase and variable pulse and BP
when does REM sleep occur? when dreaming, nightmares and penile/clitoral tumescence( engorgement) occur
what sleep serves as memory processing ? REM sleep
what eeg pattern is seen in REM sleep? Beta
pnemonic for eeg waveform of sleep? BATS Drink Blood
what are the input of cerebellum? 1) contralateral cortex via middle cerebellar peduncle 2) ipsilateral propioceptive information via inferior cerebellar peduncle from spinal cord
what are the input nerve of cerebellum? climbing and mosey fibers
what are the output nerve of cerebellum? purkinje cells >> deep nuclei of cerebellum >> contralateral cortex via the superior cerebellar peduncle
what are the deep nuclei (lateral >> medial) of cerebellum? dentate , emboliform, globose, fastigial ( dont eat greasy foods)
what happens if there is lateral lesion (injury) of cerebellum? propensity to fall towards injured (ipsilateral) side
what happens if there is midline lesion of the cerebellum? (vermal cortex , fastigial nuclei and flocculonodular lobe) results in truncal ataxia, nystagmus, head tilting, cerebellar gait and deficit in truncal co-ordination
midline lesion of the cerebellum results in? bilateral motor deficits affecting axail and proximal limb musculature
function of basal ganglia? 1) voluntary movement 2) postural adjustments
what does basal ganglia receive? receives cortical input
which feedback does basal ganglia provide and where and why? negative feedback to the cortex to modulate movement
putamen (motor) + caudate (cognition) straiatum
globus pallidus + putamen lentiform
excitatoty pathway cortical input stimulate the striatum >> stimulate the release of GABA which disinhibit the thalamus via GPi/SNr (increase motion)
inhibitory pathway cortical input stimulate the striatum >> disinhibits STN via GPe and STN stumulates GPi/SNr to inhibit the thalamus (decrease motion)
dopamine binds to D1 receptor and causes what? stimulate the excitatory pathway
dopamine binds to D2 receptor and causes what? inhibiting the inhibiroty pathway ( increase motion)
Created by: nepal.sarthak1



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