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Chapter 19 LOM

Cancer Medicine Oncology 10th edition

QuestionAnswer
loss of differentiation of cells and reversion to a more primitive cell types: anaplasia
tumors = neoplasms New growths that arise from normal tissue.
malignant a tumor capable of invasion and spread to surrounding or more distant sites
Benign Definition noninvasive tumor and not spreading to other sites.
Benign attributes Grow slowly, encapsulated and are composed of organized and specialized (differentiated) cells that closely resemble the normal, mature tissue from which they are derived.
Benign 3 attributes slow, encapsulated, specialized resemblance to origin cells
Malignant characteristics cells multiply rapidly, invasive and infiltration, extents into neighboring tissue. undifferentiated cells.
Malignant cells Anaplastic lack an orderly arrangement. Vary in size and shape, piled on top of one another.
hyperchromatic stain excessively with dyes that recognized genetic material
What makes malignant cells hyperchromatic? The nuclei in these cells are large and stain excessively (hyperchromatic) with dyes that recognize genetic material.
mitosis When a cell divides, the DNA material in each chromosome copies itself so that exactly the same DNA is passed to the two new daughter cells that are formed.
Protein synthesis The production of new proteins
DNA contains the master code for all? proteins produced in the cell.
Genes Are composed of an arrangement of units called nucleotides (containing a s sugar, phosphate, and a base, such as adenine, guanine, thymine, or cytosine)
nucleotides A arrangement of units containing a sugar, phosphate, and a base, such as adenine, guanine, thymine,or cytosine,
RNA (ribonucleic acid) In the nucleus, the coded message with instructions for making a specific protein is copied from DNA onto another molecule called RNA (ribonucleic acid).
RNA = ribonucleic acid Travels from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of the cell, carrying the coded message that directs the formation of specific proteins.
What two processes are controlled by DNA? Mitosis and protein synthesis.
mutation Mutations particularly those that stimulate cell growth or black DNA repair, lead to formation of malignant tumors.
apoptosis Process of normal cells undergoing spontaneous disintegration or programmed cell death.
carcinogens Agents from the environment, such as chemicals, drugs, tobacco smoke, radiation, and viruses, can cause damage to DNA and thus produce cancer.
chemical carcinogens Fund in a variety of products and drugs
Examples of carcinogens hdrocarbons in cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoke and automobile exhaust, insecticides, dyes, industrial chemicals, insulation and hormones.
Radiation Consists of waves of energy
alveolar Pertaining to tumor growth in small microscopic sacs (descriptive of connective tissue tumors—sarcomas).
cachexia General ill health and malnutrition associated with chronic disease such as cancer.
carcinoma in situ Localized tumor growth
electrocauterization Burning tissue to destroy it (using electricity)
chemotherapy Treatment using drugs
cryosurgery Destruction of tissue using cold temperatures.
cystic tumor Tumor forms with large open spaces filled with fluid
fibrosarcoma Malignant tumor of fiber-producing cells (flesh or connective tissue origin).
follicular Pertaining to microscopic description of tumor growth in small gland-type sacs
fungating tumor Mushrooming pattern of growth in which tumor cells pile one on top of another and project from the tissue surface.
medullary tumor Large, soft, fleshy tumor.
mucositis Inflammation of mucous membranes.
mutation Change in the genetic material of a cell.
mutagenic Pertaining to producing mutation.
necrotic Tumor containing dead cells
neurofibromatosis Tumors of fibrous connective tissue surrounding nerve cells (neurofibromas). This is a genetic disorder.
oncology Study of tumors
papillary Pertaining to tumors that grow in small nipple-like or finger-like pattern.
dysplastic Pertaining to abnormal growth of cells but not clearly cancerous.
pleomorphic Pertaining to tumors that contain a variety of cell types.
protocol Detailed plan for treatment of illness.
polypoid tumor Tumors that grow as projections extending outward from a base.
radiation Use of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
osteosarcoma Malignant tumor (flesh tissue) of bone
scirrhous Pertaining to hard, densely packed tumors, overgrown with fibrous tissue
xerostomia Conditions of dry mouth.
retinoblastoma Tumor of the retina of the eye (embryonic cells); congenital and hereditary tumor
neuroblastoma Cancerous tumor of embryonic nervous tissue; a sarcoma composed of neuroblasts and affecting infants and children up to 10 years of age. The tumor usually arises in the autonomic nervous system.
angiogenesis Formation of blood vessels
adenocarcinoma Cancerous tumor of glandular tissue.
hyperplasia Condition of increased growth of cells (in numbers).
neoplasm New growth (tumor).
myelosuppression Stopping or inhibiting the growth of bone marrow tissue. This means that blood cells (leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets), normally formed in bone marrow, are not produced.
radiotherapy Ionizing radiation used to treat malignancies.
anaplasia Reversion of cells to a more embryonic type (as happens in malignancy).
apoptosis Programmed cell death
brachytherapy Implantation of small sealed containers or seeds of radioactive material directly or near tumors
epidermoid Resembling epidermal tissue (tumors that arise from aberrant epidermal cells).
metastasis The spread of a malignant tumor from its original location to a distant site.
metaplasia Abnormal transformation of adult differentiated cells to differentiated tissue of another kind
teletherapy Radiation therapy using high-energy beams from a distant (tele-) source, such as a linear accelerator or cyclotron (proton therapy).
Created by: Hobbskg