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acts as the primary link between the brain and the pituitary gland Hypothalamus
Master gland. Secretes hormones that cause other glands to secrete hormones Pituitary Gland
Secretes adrenocorticotropic, thyrotropic,luteinizing, follicle stimulating, growth hormone, and prolactin anterior pituitary
secretes anti-diuretic hormome and oxytocin Posterior pituitary
located in the neck, releases hormones when stimulated by TSH from the ant pituirary. Secretes IODINE, CALCITONIN, THYROXINE, and TRI_ODOTHYRONINE Thyroid
releases the parathyroid hormone (which increases the Calcium levels in the blood) Parathyroid
located on top of the kidneys and is made up of the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla adrenal glands
outer part of this gland releases corticosteroids including cortisol adrenal cortex
inner part of this gland releases catecholimines such as epinephrine adrenal medulla
located in the middle of the brain, secretes melatonin, a hormone that helps regulate the sleep/wake cycle pineal body
releases insulin, glucagons, and somastatin which regulate energy and metabolism in the body. pancreas
a group of specialized organs and tissues that produce, store, and secrete hormones. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
a decrease in anti-diuretic hormone. S&Sx : severe polyuria, polydipsia, dehydration, spec grav of 1.001-1.005 and LARGE AMOUNTS OF DILUTE URINE Diabetes Insipidus
Any enlargement of the thyroid gland may be caused by iodine insufficiency or long term goitrogens such as salicylates (aspirin) these can inhibit thryoxine production so ask the patient about aspirin use Goiter
most common form of thyroiditis. Increased levels of T3 & T4 then these depress over time. TX thyroid hormones and atenolol or propranolol to treat hypothyroidism Hashimoto's Thyroid
secretion of excess amounts of thyroid hormones which increase metabolism. Weightloss irritability personality changes bug eyes goiter acropahchy (finger clubbing and swelling of the fingers) Hyperthyroidism
multi-system type of hyperthyroidism, with most patients exhibiting thyroid hyperplasia and exopthalumus Grave's Disease
life threatening disorder caused by the sudden increase of thyroxin into the bloodstream Thyroid Storm
decrease in the production of thyroid hormone hypothyroidism
type of hypothyroidism S&Sx: lethargy, weight gain, slow reflexes, constipation, intolerance to cold, PUFFY FACE, coarse sparse hair. Tx: IV LEVOTHYROXIN Myxedema Coma
hypothyroidism that develops during fetal lide, causes mental and physical retardation Cretinism
inadequate production of parathyroid hormone (a hormone which INCREASES Calcium) S&Sx: HYPOcalcemia, TETANY, decreased Ca levels with increased phospate levels HYPOPARATHYROIDISM
excellerated absorption of Ca in the kidney tubules. S&Sx: HYPERcalecemia, renal stones, weakness. Tx: partial or complete thyroidectomy. WATCH CALCIUM LEVELS AFTER SURGERY HYPERparathyroidism
HYPERsecretion of cortisol. S&Sx: trunk of body is OBESE with strech marks on abdomen, extremidities are thin, irreg periods, MOON FACE, BUFFALO HUMP, MASCULINE FEATURES IN FEMALES AND INCREASED FACIAL AND BODY HAIR, HTN. suscepible to falls *NO THROW RUG CUSHINGS DISEASE
HYPOsecretion of the adrenal cortex and its steroid hormones. S&Sx: weakness, HYPERPIGMENTATION, hypotension, weightloss, increased K, decreased Na, increased BUN. Tx: lifelong corticosteroid therapy never abruptly stop therapy may lead to CRISIS Addison's Disease
excessive aldersterone secretion d/t an adrenal adenoma (kidney tumor) trademark of this disease *HTN WITH INCREASED K S&Sx: headache due to HTNM and Na retention hyperaldosteronism
caused by a neoplasm (tumor) which causes and excesive release of epinephrine S&Sx: HTN, hyperglycemia, and H/A. Tx: removal of tumor Phenchromocytoma
a multisystem disease relatedto the abnormal production of insulin impaired utilization of insulin or both. Assoc with elevated glucose levels in the blood. Leading cause of heart disease, stroke, adult blindness, lower limb amputation, endstage renal fai diabetes mellitus
produces by the B-Cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Insulin
excess glucose is stored as **THIS** in the cells thus maintaining blood sugar levels in the blood glycogen
If the body needs increased glucose w/out food comsumption the Alpha cells of the ilset of langerhan releases *WHAT* which converts glycogen to glucose glucagon
Normal blood sugar level in the blood 70-110
Seen in people under 30. Involves progressive destruction of pancreatic B cells w/out autoantibodies causing a reduction in normal function by 80-90% before clinical symptoms manifest. Pt presents w/ KETOACIDOSIS from faulty CHO metabolism. LIFE THREATENI Type 1 Diabetes
pH below 7.2, BiCarb below 15 meq, glucose greater than 200-1000 possible Kussmaul breathing Type 1 diabetes
disease: gradual onset, over 40 yrs, 80-90% pts are overweight, pancreas produces insulin but not enough or poorly used Type 2 diabetes
body tissues do not respond to insulin, resulting in HYPERGLYCEMIA, there is usually enough insulin metabolism to prevent ketoacidosis Insulin resistance
occurs when alteration in B cells is nild, glucose levels will be higher than normal, but not enough to diagnose diabetes impaired glucose tolerance
metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance. Cascade of disorders: HTN, therosclerosis, obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperpigmentation and a velvety skin thickening in the axialle, neck, groin, back of knees, and umbilical area. Syndrome X
deveolps during pregnancy between 24-28 weeks gestational diabetes
results from another mechical condition or due to treatment of a condition: Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism, parenteral nutrition, or steroid therapy Secondary Diabetes
when a patient has fasted for at least 8 hours fasting plasma glucose level (greater than 126)
random plasma glucose greater than 200
patient given 75mg of glucose and then tested two hour oral glucose tolerance test (greater than 200)
fasting blood sugar greater than 110 but less than 126 impaired glucose tolerance
shows the amount of glucose that has attached to hemoglobin in a 90-120 day period hemoglobin A1C test
reflects metabolic response 1-2 hours after consuming a high CHO meal Postprandial BS
renal threshold for glucose is 180 and then it will "SPILL OVER" into the urine Keytones in teh urine
Patient eats high CHO meals for 3 days and on the 4th day FBS is drawn. Then high CHO drink is ingested and blood is drawn at 1,2, & 3 hour intervals. The second hour is the most important if the BS is greater than 140-200 glucose tolerance test (GTT)
required fo rtype 1 diabetes or type 2 who can't control their diabetes Exogenus Insulin
most widely used insulin human insulin
fast acting insulin: acts in 5-15 minutes and lasts 3-5 hours Lispro (humelog)
short acting insulin: acts in 30-60 minutes and lasts up to 8 hours Regular insulin
intermediate acting insulin (cloudy and kept in fridge) acts in 1-4 hours and lasts 12-26 hours NPH insulin
long acting insulin: acts in 1-2 hours and lasts 22-26 hours Glargine & Detemir
cloudy and kept in the fridge. always mix clear to cloudy to prevent contaminating short lasting with long lasting insulin NPH insulin
characterized by periods of hypoglycemia followed by rebound hyperglycemia. Typically happens at night. S&Sx: patient wakes with headache, nightmares, n/v, enuresis. If blood suger is greater than 50-60 between 2-4AM and at 7AM is 180-200 decrease eve ins SOMOGYI EFFECT
scar tissue or atrophy of S/C fat due to poor injection technique and or not rotating injection sites lipidystrophy
glypizide, glyburide, micronase, diabeta, *METFORMIN*, all increase pancreatic B cell production of insulin oral hypoglycemics
Created by: Beezle