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Biology Vocab

Chapter 11

TermDefinition
Gene Pool Collection of alleles found in all of the individuals of a population.
Allele Frequency Proportion of one allele, compared with all the alleles for that trait, in the gene pool.
Normal Distribution Distribution in a population in which allele frequency is highest near the mean range value and decreases progressively towards each extreme end.
Microevolution Observable change in the allele frequencies of a population over a few generations.
Directional Selection Pathway of natural selection in which one uncommon phenotype is selected over a more common phenotype.
Stabilizing Selection Pathway of natural selection in which intermediate phenotypes are selected over phenotypes at both extremes.
Disruptive Selection Pathway of natural selection in which two opposite, but equally common, phenotypes are selected over the most common phenotype.
Gene Flow Physical movement of alleles from one population to another.
Genetic Drift Change in allele frequencies due to chance alone, occurring most commonly in small populations.
Bottleneck Effect Genetic drift that results from an event that drastically reduces the size of a population.
Founder Effect Genetic drift that occurs after a small number of individuals colonize a new area.
Sexual Selection Selection in which certain traits enhance mating success; traits are, therefore, passed on to offspring.
Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium Condition in which a population's allele frequencies for a given trait do not change from generation to generation.
Reproductive Isolation Final stage in speciation, in which members of isolated populations are either no longer able to mate or no longer able to produce viable offspring.
Speciation Evolution of two or more species from one ancestral species.
Behavioral Isolation Isolation between populations due to differences in courtship or mating behavior.
Geographic Isolation Isolation between populations due to physical barriers.
Temporal Isolation Isolation between populations due to barriers related to time, such as differences in mating periods or differences in the time of day that individuals are most active.
Convergent Evolution Evolution toward similar characteristics in unrelated species, resulting from adaptations to similar environmental conditions.
Divergent Evolution Evolution of one or more closely related species into different species; resulting from adaptations to different environmental conditions.
Coevolution Process in which two or more species evolve in response to changes in each other.
Extinction Elimination of a species from Earth.
Punctuated Equilibrium Theory that states that speciation occurs suddenly and rapidly followed by long periods of little evolutionary change.
Adaptive Radiation Process by which one species evolves and gives rise to many descendant species that occupy different ecological niches.
Created by: 58knasims