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LE Modern Genetics

1. Chromosomal mutations changes in number or structure of chromosome; usually shows in phenotype because many genes are involved
2. Substitutions replacement of one or more gene in a gene sequence with another
3. Insertions segment of chromosome is inserted or added
4. Deletions segment of chromosome is lost or removed
5. Translocations segment of chromosome breaks off and reattaches to nonhomologous chromosome
6. Inversions segment of chromosome breaks off & reattaches at new point on original chromosome resulting in a change in the order of the genes
7. DNA deoxyribonucleic acid; the material found in all cells that contains the genetic information about that organism
8. RNA ribonucleic acid; class of single-stranded molecules transcribed from DNA, containing, a linear sequence of nucleotide bases that is complimentary to the DNA strand from which it is transcribed.
9. Nitrogenous base nitrogen containing base found in DNA; adenine, thymine, guanine, cytocine
10. Transcription mRNA transcribed from DNA
11. Translation protein made from RNA
12. Codon set of 3 bases used to determine amino acid formed
13. Amino acid building block of protein
14. Protein form from amino acids; makes up collagen, hemoglobin, antibodies, and enzymes
15. Genetic engineering set of technologies that humans use to alter the genetic instructions of an organism by substituting DNA molecules
16. Biotechnology the combination of technology & biological sciences
17. Selective breeding the process of choosing a few organisms with desirable traits to serve as parents of the next generation
18. Recombinant DNA isolate specific genes & insert isolated gene from one organism to DNA of another à recombinant DNA
19. Plasmid a segment of DNA independent of the chromosomes & capable of replication, occurring in bacteria & yeast; used in recombinant DNA procedures to transfer genetic material from cell to cell
20. Hardy-Weinberg Principle ideal condition where population remains stable if there is no mutation or migration, large population and random mating
Created by: jgarrisi