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Sociology 3

TermDefinition
Global Stratification The unequal distribution of wealth, power, and prestige on a global basis, resulting in people having vastly different lifestyles and life chances both within and among the nations of the world.
Endogamy must marry within their social caste or class
Caste largely determines occupation. Systems generally mandate endogamy. Caste systems limit outgroup social contacts. Powerful cultural beliefs underlie caste systems. Caste systems shape people’s lives in four crucial ways:
high income countries Characterized by the nations with the highest overall standards of living. The gross national income per capita of $12,500 or more.
middle income countries Nations with a standard of living about average for the world as a whole. Characterized by a gross national income per capita of between $2500 and $12,500.
low income countries Characterized by limited economic development and rapidly increasing populations. More than half of the world’s population lives on $1.25 per day.
Social stratification Low-income countries distribute wealth very unequally.
Absolute poverty Lack of access to basic necessities that is life-threatening. Most important measure to the global perspective
global disparity Quality of Life indicators show that there is disparity in life chances of individuals around the world.
life chances having access to important resources (food, shelter, health care, clothing).
Demography Study of size and composition of human populations as well as the causes and consequences of changes in these factors
Influenced by: Fertility – actual number of births in a population Mortality – death rate Migration - relocation demography is influenced by
crude death rate annual number of deaths per 1000 people in a given population
life expectancy The average number of years a person born in a particular year can expect to live
continues to widen The income gap between the richest and the poorest 20 percent of the world population ____.
global stratification The unequal distribution of wealth, power, and prestige on a global basis is referred to as:
low income countries Characterized by limited economic development and rapidly increasing populations.
demographic transition theory High fertility with high mortality rate Populations rapidly increase Beliefs change and population growth levels out Both fertility and mortality are low
modernization theory Model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations
dependency theory One country relies on another for survival or growth. “Underdevelopment” is not necessarily the cause of inequality.
world systems theory We can’t understand the fate of a single country, without understanding how it fits into the overall system
Peripheral countries must avoid exploitive economic relations with the core Try to nurture domestic industries Band together with other poor nations to fight against the power of other countries. What should peripheral nations do?
new international division of labor theory High-Income countries now rely on low-income countries for cheap labor. The division of labor continues, like in individual countries, but on a global scale
Producer-driven commodity chains industries in which transnational corporations play a central part in controlling the production process.
Buyer-driven commodity chains industries in which large retailers, brand-name merchandisers and trading companies set up decentralized production networks in middle and low-income countries.
Malthus Theory of Population The population problem is that populations will grow faster than the available food supply
Preventive checks practices to limit reproduction
Positive checks events that limit reproduction either by causing the deaths of individuals before they reach reproductive age or by causing the deaths of large number of people, thereby lowering the overall population
Social entrepreneurs act as the change agents for society, seizing opportunities others miss in order to improve the fate of poor people.
underdevelopment is not necessarily the cause of inequality. Dependency Theory makes a positive contribution to our understanding of global poverty by noting that:
World Systems Theory _________suggests that what exists under capitalism is a truly global system that is held together by economic ties
Gender Personal traits and social positions members of a society attach to being female and male
Gender stratification Unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women
Gender-role socialization The lifelong process whereby people learn the values, attitudes, motivations, and behavior considered appropriate to each sex according to their culture.
Gender scripts The social expectations of gender assigned to males and females.
Women make up the world’s largest minority population
Matriarchy Form of social organization in which females dominate males
Patriarchy Form of social organization in which males dominate females
Patriarchal Ideology The belief that men are superior to women and should control all important aspects of society.
Feminism the belief that women are equal to men and should have equal rights and opportunities
Type of subsistence base. Supply of and demand for labor. The extent to which women's child-rearing activities are compatible with certain types of work Three factors of gendered division of labor
60 % of all women work
71 % of working women work full-time
Institutionalized Sexism Established social patterns that have the unintended consequence of limiting women’s opportunities
During the hiring process In the awarding of promotions Through unequal wage policies Three primary methods of discrimination
Functionalist Theory of Gender Equality It is useful to have men and women fulfill those roles in society for which they are socialized
Symbolic Interaction and Gender Equality Sexism arises through culturally patterned interaction in everyday life
Conflict Theory of Gender Equality Subjugation of women to subordinate roles benefits men and capitalism. Capitalists benefit from a labor market that splits the interests of men and women workers—in favor of men. Segmented labor market provides a low-wage female labor reserve.
Functionalist Traditional roles ensure that important tasks will be performed.
Conflict Unequal power heightens gender-based social inequalities
Symbolic Interactionism Girls and boys are treated differently in school, etc.
conflict theorists According to ______________, the subjugation of women to subordinate roles benefits men and capitalism. A segmented labor market provides a low-wage female labor reserve.
gender role socialization __________ is the lifelong process whereby people learn the values, attitudes, motivations, and behavior considered appropriate to each sex according to their culture.
Gender bias favoritism toward one gender over the other
Sexual Harassment Comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated, and unwelcome.
Culture encourages men to be sexually assertive and perceive women in sexual terms. Men occupy most positions of power. By the “effect standard,” a hostile environment involves different perceptions of the same behavior Causes of sexual harassment
Objectification Treating people as if they are things, not human beings
Body consciousness a term that describes how a person perceives and feels about his or her body.
sexism __________ is the subordination of one sex, usually female, based on the assumed superiority of the other sex.
gender bias __________ consists of showing favoritism toward one gender over the other
body consciousness __________ is how a person perceives and feels about his or her body; it also includes an awareness of social conditions in society that contribute to this self-knowledge.
Prejudice A negative attitude based on generalizations about members of selected racial, ethnic, or other groups.
Stereotypes are overgeneralizations about the appearance, behavior, or other characteristics of members of particular categories
Frustration–aggression hypothesis People who are frustrated in their efforts to achieve a highly desired goal will respond with a pattern of aggression toward others.
Authoritarian Personality Characterized by excessive conformity, submissiveness to authority, intolerance, insecurity, a high level of superstition, and rigid, stereotypic thinking
discrimination The denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice or for other arbitrary reasons.
Subtle discrimination passive and seemingly minor infractions
Covert discrimination intentional but hidden
Blatant discrimination outwardly expressed
Cumulative Impact of Systematic Discrimination to outsider may seem like an individual is over-reacting
Isolate discrimination Harmful action intentionally taken by a dominant-group member against a member of a subordinate group.
Small-group discrimination Harmful action intentionally taken by a limited number of dominant-group members against members of subordinate groups.
Direct institutionalized discrimination Organizationally prescribed or community-prescribed action that intentionally has a differential and negative impact on members of a subordinate group
Indirect institutionalized discrimination Practices that have a harmful effect on subordinate-group members even though the prescribed regulations guiding these actions were initially established with no intent to harm
glass ceiling discrimination invisible barrier blocking promotion of qualified individuals in work environment because of gender, race, or ethnicity
Native Americans Most disadvantaged group in the U.S. in terms of income, employment, housing, and nutrition.
Genocide The deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political, or cultural group.
Annihilation deliberate extermination of a racial or ethnic group.
Ethnic Cleansing The creation of ethnic homogeneous areas through the mass expulsion of other ethnic populations
Assimilation A process by which members of subordinate racial and ethnic groups become absorbed into the dominant culture
Cultural Assimilation Ethnic group members adopt dominant group traits such as language religion, values, food, etc. Historically, ethnic groups were expected to change and be like Anglo-Americans.
Structural assimilation Occurs when members of subordinate racial or ethnic groups gain acceptance in social situations by the dominant group members.
Biological assimilation Marriage and the creation of families among groups – this is what will eventually lead to more ambiguity in racial profiling.
Psychological assimilation the individual changes their own ethnic self-identification
Ethnic Pluralism The coexistence of a variety of distinct racial and ethnic groups within one society
genocide The deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political, or cultural group:
Native Americans In terms of income, employment, housing, nutrition, and health, which of the following is the most disadvantaged racial or ethnic group in the United States?
stereotyping Overgeneralizations about the appearance, behavior, or other characteristics of members of particular categories.
A race is a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important.
Manifest Destiny The idea that early residents of the U.S. were divinely granted right to expand geographically throughout the country from east to west. Expansionism was seen as a right of the European immigrants.
Jim Crow Laws State laws that restricted economic and civil rights of Black Americans. All public places were segregated and tactics of intimidation eroded personal freedom for African Americans
Racism the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another.
minority Any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates
ethnic groups A collection of people distinguished, by others or by themselves, primarily on the basis of cultural or nationality characteristics.
race A category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, eye shape, or other subjectively selected attributes.
racism __________ is a set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices used to justify the superior treatment of one racial or ethnic group and the inferior treatment of another racial or ethnic group.
ethnic group A collection of people distinguished by others or by themselves, primarily on the basis of cultural or nationality characteristics.
Created by: pace_sauce