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BIO Exam 3 - Stack 3

Animal Form and Function

Animal ___ and ___ are correlated at all levels of organization. - form - function
___ maintains the internal environment in many animals. Feedback control
Many different body plans have arisen during the course of evolution, but these variations fall within certain bounds. What kinds of physical laws limit the range of animal forms? - physical laws that govern strength, diffusion, movement, and heat exchange limit the range of animal forms - we have to build off of what we already have
How do the properties of water limit body shape in water-dwelling organisms? - water is much more dense (1000x) and viscous than air - so, fast swimmers need to have smooth body surfaces and tapered ends
Physical laws also influence animal body plans with regard to maximum size. - as body dimensions increase, thicker skeletons (internal or external) are required to maintain adequate support - as bodies increase in size, the muscles required for locomotion must represent an ever-larger fraction of the total body mass
Whether an organism is single-celled or multicellular, all cells must ___ and ___. - obtain nutrients - get rid of wastes
How do single-celled organisms obtain nutrients and get rid of wastes? - since their entire surface area contacts the environment directly, it's just a matter of simple diffusion - example: amoeba
How do simple multicellular organism with only two cell layers obtain nutrients and get rid of wastes? - as fluid moves in and out of their mouths, every body cell can exchange material directly with the aqueous environment, so it is just a matter of simple diffusion - example: hydra
How do complex multicellular organisms obtain nutrients and get rid of wastes? - they must use specialized surfaces (usually internal and connected to the environment via openings) to achieve sufficient exchange with the environment - example: digestive, respiratory, and circulatory systems in humans
Exchange surfaces are finely branched or folded to increase ___ (like with root hairs in plants). Give three examples in humans. - surface area - lining of small intestine has finger-like projections - sponge-like tissue in the lung - long, narrow blood vessels packed into ball-shaped structures in the kidney
Internal body fluids link exchange surfaces to body cells. Explain. - spaces between cells are filled with interstitial fluid - complex body plans also have circulatory fluid, like blood (O, H2O, nutrients) - exchange between the I and C fluid enables cells thru.out the body to obtain nutrients and get rid of wastes
Cells form a functional animal body through their emergent properties. What does that mean? What is the hierarchy of organization of body plans? - emergent properties arise by way of successive levels of structural and functional organization (like how H2 a gas, O2 a gas… but H2O a liquid) - cells -> tissues -> organs -> organ systems
What are the four main types of animal tissues? - epithelial - connective - muscle - nervous
What are the general functions of epithelial tissue? - barrier against mechanical injury, pathogens, and fluid loss - form active interfaces with the environment (so, exchange)
What are the general functions of connective tissue? holds tissues and organs together and in place
What are the general functions of muscle tissue? - responsible for nearly all types of body movement - involuntary in smooth, cardiac = voluntary in skeletal
What are the general functions of nervous tissue? receipt, processing, and transformation of information
An animal’s tissues, organs, and organ systems must act in concert with one another. How does this work during long dives by harbor seals? the seal slows its heart rate, collapses its lungs, and lowers its body temp. while propelling itself forward with its hind flippers
Coordinating activity across an animal’s body requires communication between different locations in the body. What are the two major systems for controlling and coordinating responses to stimuli. In general, how do they work? - the endocrine system; signaling by hormones - the nervous system; signaling by neurons
An animal is said to be a regulator for a particular environmental variable if ___. - it uses internal mechanisms to control internal change in the face of external fluctuation - example: how humans sweat or shiver; endothermic organisms
An animal is said to be a conformer for a particular environmental variable if ___. - it allows its internal condition to change in accordance with external changes in the variable - example: reptiles having to sunbathe; exothermic organisms
How do some organisms (e.g., the spider crab) conform to more constant environments, such as the relatively stable solute concentration (salinity) of the ocean environment? adaption
How can an organism (e.g., a bass) be both a regulator and a conformer? Think about internal versus external temperature, and internal versus external solute concentration. even though the bass conforms to the temperature of the surrounding water, the solute concentration in its blood and interstitial fluid differs from the solute concentration of the fresh water in which it lives
What is homeostasis, and what are a couple of examples that we just discussed? What are some examples of homeostasis in humans? - the steady-state physiological condition of the body - the steady body temperature of a rive otter; the stable concentration of solutes in a freshwater bass - stable human body temperature, pH, glucose
Give a non-living example of temperature regulation. - control of room temperature - regulating room temperature depends on a control center (the thermostat) that detects temperature change and activates mechanisms that reverse that change - negative feedback
An animal achieves homeostasis by maintaining a variable, such as body temperature or solute concentration, at or near a particular value, or set point. In general, how does this work? - fluctuations above or below the set point serve as the stimulus detected by a receptor/sensor - upon receiving a signal from that, a control center triggers a response - that returns the variable to the set point - relies largely on NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
negative feedback - a form of regulation in which accumulation of an end product of a process slows the process - a primary mechanism in homeostasis whereby a change in a variable triggers a response that counteracts the initial change
positive feedback - a form of regulation in which an end product of a process speeds up that process - a control mechanism in which a change in a variable triggers a response that reinforces or amplifies the change
Give an example of a negative feedback loop in humans. - stimulus: BGL rises (from eating) - high BGL detected by pancreas - pancreas secretes insulin causing liver cells to take up G and store it as glycogen - as body cells take up G, BGL decline, and insulin release stops - return to homeostatic BGL
Give an example of a positive feedback loop in humans. - stimulus: head of fetus pushes against cervix - nerve impulses from cervix transmitted to brain - brain stimulates pituitary g. to secrete oxytocin - ox. carried in bloodstream to uterus - ox. stimulates contractions and pushes fetus toward cervix
Does positive feedback maintain homeostasis? - no - they help drive processes to completion; one-shot deals
The set points and normal ranges for homeostasis can change under various circumstances. In fact, regulated changes in the internal environment are essential to normal body function. What are a couple of examples? - puberty (associated with a stage in life; radical shift in hormone balance) - menstrual cycle (cyclic; variation in hormone levels)
What is circadian rhythm? What is an example in humans? - a physiological cycle of about 24 hours that persists even in the absence of external cues - fluctuations in core body temperature and melatonin concentration in blood
What is acclimatization? Tell me about the example of an elk or other mammal moving into mountains from sea level. - gradual physiological adjustment to a change in an environmental factor - the lower O concentration in the air stimulates the animal to breathe more rapidly and deeply; it therefore loses more CO2 thru exhalation, raising blood pH above its set point
Created by: jessica.gvc



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