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Ch 18 LOM Ed. 10

Lanuguage of Medicine 10th Edition

QuestionAnswer
Exocrine glands Send chemical substances via ducts to the outside of the body. (tears, sweat, milk, saliva) Sweat, mammary, mucous, salivary, and lacrimal (tear) glands.
List all 8 endocrine glands thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, ovaries, testes, pineal Secrete their hormones directly into the bloodstream.
Melatonin Functions to support the body's biological clock, and its thought to induce sleep. Secretions increase with deprivation of light and is inhibited by sunlight.
pineal gland Located in the central portion of the brain. Endocrine gland that secretes melatonin.
seasonal affective disorder (SAD) The person suffers depression in winter months. The pineal gland has been linked to SAD condition.
erythropoietin kidney Secreted by endocrine tissue, not a gland; in the kidneys,
human chorionic gonadotropin placenta Secreted by endocrine tissue in other organs apart from the major endocrine glands.
cholecystokinin gallbaladder Secreted by endocrine tissue in other organs apart from the major endocrine glands.
What do prostaglandins do and where are they located? Hormone-like substances found in the prostrate gland that affect the body in many ways. Name 3 ways... 1. stimulate contractions of the uterus 2. regulate body temperature, platelet aggregation, and acid secretion in the stomach 3. have the ability to lower blood pressure
prostaglandins produced by the? The prostrate gland and found in semen and body cells. Secreted by endocrine tissue
Endocrine tissue; Name 3 gastrointestinal tract secretions. Cholecystokinin, Gastrin, Secretin Contracts gallbladder stimulates gastric secretion, stimulates pancreatic enzymes.
Kidney endocrine tissue secretes what hormone? Erythropoietin Stimulates erythrocyte production
Pineal gland secretes what hormone? Melatonin which? Induces sleep and affects mood.
Placenta secretes what hormone? Secretes Human chorionic gonadotropin, which? Sustains pregnancy.
Skin contains endocrine tissue that secrets what? Vitamin D is secreted by the endocrine tissue in skin and does what? Affects absorption of calcium
Where is the thyroid gland? Is composed of a right and left lobe on either side of the trachea, just below a large piece of cartilage called the thyroid cartilage. 2 hormones secreted are thyroxine or tetraiodothyronine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
tetraiodothyronine T4 and triiodothyronine T3, are made where and from what? synthesized in the thyroid gland from iodine Which is picked up from the blood circulating through the gland, and from a amino acid called tyrosine.
What is most thyroid hormone bound to as it travels in the blood? Thyroid hormones are bound to protein molecules. Maintains normal levels of body metabolism in all cells.
What does removal of the thyroid gland do? Diminishing thyroid hormone content in the body results in a lower metabolic rate, heat loss, and poor physical and mental development. Injection of thyroid hormone raise the metabolic rate.
Calcitonin is secreted by the? Thyroid gland, which causes? Decreases blood calcium.
parathyroid glands are located where? Are four small oval bodies located on the dorsal aspect of the thyroid gland. Secrete parathyroid hormone PTH,
What does the thyroid gland secrete when calcium levels in the blood are high? The thyroid secrets Calcitonin, which acts how? It stimulates calcium to leave the blood and enter the bones, thus lowering blood calcium back to normal. Strengthens weakened bone tissue and prevents spontaneous bone fractures.
The thyroid cartilage is located where? Covers the larynx and produces the prominence of the neck known in men as the adams apple. Just above the thyroid gland.
What is the isthmus of the thyroid gland? Of the thyroid gland is a narrow strip of glandular tissue that connects the two lobes on the ventral anterior surface of the trachea.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted by what Endocrine gland? PTH is secreted by the parathyroid gland. Also known as parathormone.
If calcium in the blood drops what endocrine gland hormone is secreted by what organ. If calcium drops, the parathyroid gland secrets (PTH) parathyroid hormone to cause? Calcium to leave the bones and enter the blood stream.
The adrenal glands are? Two small glands, one on towp of each kidney. Each gland consists of two parts: an outer and an inner portion.
What are the two portions of the adrenal gland called? The two portions of the adrenal gland are called the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla. Secrete different hormones.
What different hormones do the adrenal glands secrete? Steroids or corticosteroids and catecholamines Derived from cholesterol and amino acids, respectfully.
What hormone does the adrenal cortex secrete? steroids or corticosteroids derived from cholesterol.
What hormone does the adrenal medulla secrete? catecholamines derived form amino acids.
How many types of corticosteroids does the adrenal cortex secrete? Three Glucocorticoids, cortisol
Endocrine glands No matter which hormones they produce; secrete their hormones directly into the bloodstream. 8 endocrine glands
Created by: Hobbskg