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Milestones Vocab

Study before April 15, 2016

Inference to infer means to come to a reasonable conclusion based on evidence from the text; the author gives hints or clues that the reader must pick up on and interpret
Explicit an idea or message that is fulled stated or revealed by the writer; the author tells the reader exactly what they need to know
Plot the series of events that form a story in a specific order
Resolution the solution to the problem or the end of the main dramatic conflict in a story
Figurative Language literary elements that are not to be taken literally, such a simile and metaphor
Simile a comparison using "like" or "as" (Her eyes shone like the stars.)
Metaphor a comparison that doesn't use "like" or "as," it simply says something is something it is not (Her eyes were shining stars.)
Alliteration The use of the same sound to start several words in a row (The beautiful butterfly blew by the bay.)
Point of View the persepective from which a story is told
First Person Point of View when the story is told by the person in the story (I went to the store.)
Second Person Point of View when the story is about you (You went to the store.)
Third Person Point of View when a narrator tells the story (He went to the store.)
Compare analyzing two things in relation to each other (how they are alike)
Contrast analyzing two things to show the differences between two things, such as two different characters or stories
Genre a category of passages, such as fiction and nonfiction, fairy tale, science fiction, historical fiction, etc.
Summary a short overview of a text that captures the main points or ideas, but not give all the details or include opinion
Analyze consider thougtfully and carefully something (especially information) for purposes of explanation and interpretation
Connotative Meaning a meaning beyond the explicit or literal meaning of a word (for example, "childlike" connotates innocence as well as youth)
Organization the way in which writing is structured
Chronological Order an organizational structure in which events are told in order by the time in which they occured
Sequential Order an organizational structure in which events are told in a logical order or step-by-step
Cause and Effect an organizational structure in which one event (the Cause) causes another (the Effect)
Problem and Solution an organizational structure in which a problem is introduced and solutions to the problem are then suggested
Compare and Contrast an organizational structure in which similarities and differences are described or explained
Order of Importance an organizational structure in which ideas or events are listed by the order of their importance
Author's Purpose the reason for the author's writing: it can be to persuade, inform, explain, or entertain (or a combination of these)
Author's Point of View the opinion of the author; the author's viewpoint
Evidence reasoning that proves a claim and demonstrates the truth; proof for a thesis
Fact a statement that can be proven (by evidence)
Opinion a statement that CANNOT be proven (because it is a writier's belief or judgment about something)
Informational Text a form of writing that informs the reader
Explanatory Text a form of writing that explains to the reader
Introduction the beginning of a piece of writing; it should let readers know what they will be reading about and set up the main idea/thesis for the writing
Transition a word, phrase, or clause that links one idea to the next (another, for example, also, because, such as, etc)
Conclusion the end of a piece of writing; it should sum up the main idea of the writing and provide an overall message to the reader
Formatting the way in which writing is organized on paper (such as titles, subtitles, font choices)
Multimedia a variety of mediums used together to produce a single presentation (writing, art, presentations, photos, charts, videos, and more)
Writing Process the steps required to produce the best possible piece of writing: prewriting, drafting, revising/editing, proofreading, and publishing
Claim idea/opinion of the author
Counterclaim an opposing viewpoint to an author's claim (also: alternate claim or viewpoint, opposing view)
Relationships the ways in which ideas are connected; there needs to be a clear relationship between a claim and reasoning
Audience the person who will be reading a piece of writing; it should always be considered when writing, as the author needs to communicate clearly with the audience
Revision the necessary process of editing and rewriting a piece of writing to make it better
Cite Evidence give proof from the text; must be properly cited (in parentheses)
Theme the lesson or message of story; it will be a "universal truth" that does not apply specifically to the story
Interactions how ideas influence individuals or events, or how characters influence ideas or events