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AP Bio Chapter 35

monocots single cotyledon, parallel veins, arranged vascular bundles, fibrous root system, petals come in multiples of 3
dicots two cotyledons, netlike veins, star like vascular bundle, taproot present, petals in multiples of 4 or 5
root system subterranean system to draw resources like water and nutrients to the plant
shoot system the aerial portion of a plant body consisting of stems, leaves, and flowers
xylem conveys water and dissolved minerals upward from the roots thru the shoot
phloem transports food made in mature leaves to the roots and to part of the shoots
taproot system found in many dicots, consisting of one large vertical root that produces many smaller lateral roots
fibrous roots found in monocots, consisting of a mat of threadlike roots that spread out below the soil surface, gives the plant extensive exposure to soil water and minerals and anchors it tenaciously to the ground
root hairs increase the surface area of the root
adventitious describes any plant part that grows in an unusual location
stems an alternating system of nodes and internodes
nodes the points at which leaves are attached
internodes the stem segments between the nodes
axillary bud has the potential to form a branch shoot, dormant
terminal bud developing leaves and a compact series of nodes and internodes
apical dominance when the terminal bud inhibits the growth of of axillary buds
leaves the photosynthetic organs of most plants
blade flat part of plant which helps form leaves
petiole a stalk which joins the leaf to a node of the stem
protoplast the contents of the cell exclusive of the cell wall
parenchyma cells mature ones have primary walls that are relatively thin and flexible, relatively unspecialized
sclerenchyma cells specialized for support, secondary walls maybe dead at maturity
water-conducting cells made up of tracheids and vessel elements arranged from end to end forming vessels,have secondary walls&dead at maturity. In gymnosperms, tracheids function for water&structural support.In angiosperms,both vessel elements&tracheids conduct water,notsupport
food-conducting cells sieve-tube members,arranged end to end with porous walls between them, companion cell always found
collenchyma cells helps to support the young part of the plant, provide support without restraining growth
fibers type of sclerenchyma, long, slender, tapered, occur in bundles
sclereids type of sclerenchyma, shorter than fibers and irregular in shape
pits thinner regions where only primary walls are present
sieve-tube members chains of cells which transport organic compounds and mineral ions thru the the phloem
sieve plates in angiosperms, the end walls of the sieve tubes, have pores that presumably facilitate the flow of fluid from cell to cell
companion cells alongside each sieve-tube member, connected to the sieve-tube by numerous plasmodesmata
dermal tissue system or epidermis single layer of tightly packed cells that covers and protects all younger parts of the plant
cuticle helps bring aerial parts of the plant retain water, an important adaptation to living on land
annuals complete their life cycle in a single year or less
perennials live many years
meristems perpetually embryonic tissues which makes the plant always capable for growth
apical meristems located at the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots, supply cells for the plant to grow in length
primary growth this elongation, enable roots to ramify throughout the soil and shoots to increase their exposure to light and carbon dioxide
secondary growth a progressive thickening of the roots and shoots former earlier by primary growth
lateral meristems cylinders of dividing cells extending along the length of roots and shoots, replace the epidermis with secondary dermal tissue like bark
primary plant body consists of the three tissue system: dermal vascular, and ground tissues
root cap physically protects the delicate meristem as the root elongates through the abrasive soil
zone of cell division includes the apical meristem and its derivatives, called primary meristems
quiescent center a population of cells that divide much more slowly that the other meristemic cells, relatively resistant to chemicals and damage
protoderm the outermost primary meristem which gives rise to the roots and shoots
procambium a primary meristem of roots and shoots that form vascular tissue
ground meristem a primary meristem that gives rise to ground tissue in plants
zone of elongation the cells elongate ten times their original size
zone of maturation cells of the root begin to specialize in structure and function, three tissue systems produced by primary growth complete their differentiation
stele which is the vascular bundle where both xylem and phloem develop
pith the central core of parenchyma cells, which is ringed by vascular tissue with an alternating pattern of xylem and phloem
cortex the region of the root between the stele epidermis
endodermis innermost layer of the cortex, a cylinder one cell thick that forms the boundary between the cortex and the stele
lateral roots arise from the outermost layer of the stele
pericycle a layer of cells that may become meristemic and begin dividing again
vascular bundles vascular tissue which runs the length of a stem
stomata tiny pores flanked by guard cells on leaves
guard cells special cells that surround the stomata
transpiration water loss by plant evaporation
mesophyll the area where the ground tissue of a leaf is sandwiched
phase changes gradual transition in vegetative growth from the juvenile to mature state
secondary plant body consists of tissues produced during this secondary growth in diameter
vascular cambium growth produces a secondary xylem and phloem
cork cambium produces a tough, thick covering for stems and roots that replaces the epidermis
ray initials are cambium cells that produce radical files or parachyma cells known as xylem rays and phloem rays
fusiform initials refers to the shape of the cambium cells within the vascular bundles
periderm the layers of cork cambium plus cork
bark all tissues external to the vascular cambium, phloem plus periderm
lenticles spongy regions of the bark that make it possible for living cells within the truck to exchange gases with the outside air for cellular respiration
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