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Nat5 Multicellular

Fertilisation and inheritance

What is a gamete? A haploid cell (sex cell)
What are animal gametes called? sperm (male) and egg (female)
What are plant gametes called? pollen (male) and ovule (female)
What animal structure produces sperm? testes
What animal structure produces eggs? ovary
What plant structure produces pollen? anther
What plant structure produces ovules? ovary
What is a zygote? A fertilised egg
What is a chromosome complement of a cell? A total number of chromosomes that a cell contains.
What is a chromosome complement of a human diploid cell 46 chromosomes
What is a chromosome complement of a human gamete (haploid cell)? 23 chromosomes
What are haploid cells? Cells that have exactly half of the chromosome complement of a diploid cell
Is a zygote a diploid or a haploid cell? Diploid
Why is a zygote a diploid cell? because it is made from two haploid cells whose nuclei have fused at fertilisation
What is a phenotype? An outward appearance of an organism, eg. blue eyes
What is a genotype? A combination of alleles that organism has for a given characteristic eg. Bb, BB, or bb
What is a heterozygous genotype? two different alleles, Bb
What is a homozygous genotype? two same alleles, BB or bb
Example of a homozygous dominant genotype BB
Example of a homozygous recessive genotype bb
What is polygenic inheritance? Inheritance of characteristics that are controlled by more than one gene. eg. height
What kind of variation does polygenic inheritance lead to? continuous variation
What kind of variation is seen when characteristic is controlled by a single gene? discrete variation
Name two examples of continuous variation height, hand span
Name two examples of discrete variation blood type, eye colour
What is discrete variation? variation in which individuals can be divided into discrete groups
What is continuous variation? variation in which individuals vary along a continuum. Needs to be measured (has units)
What is an allele? A version of a gene
How do new alleles appear? by mutation
Why does actual offspring ration sometimes differ from predicted ratio in genetic crosses? when number of offspring is small sometimes ratios differ from predicted due to chance
Created by: dr.prorocic