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chapter 8 voc.

genes and DNA

TermDefinition
Nucleotides The small units, or monomers, that make up DNA.
Replication The process by which the DNA is copied during the cell cycle.
Central Dogma Theory that states that, in cells, information only flows from DNA to RNA in proteins.
RNA Ribonucleic Acid
Translation The process that converts, or translates, an mRNA message into a polypeptide.
Codon A 3-nucleotide sequence that codes for an amino acid.
Double Helix 2 strands of DNA wind around each other like a twisted ladder.
Base Pairing Rules Rule that describes how nucleotides form bonds in DNA: adenine (A) always bonds with thymine (A); guanine (G) always bonds with cytosine (C).
DNA Polymerases A group of enzymes.
Transcription The process of copying a sequence of DNA to produce a complementary strand of RNA.
RNA Polymerases Enzymes that bond nucleotides together in a chain to make a new RNA molecule.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) An intermediate message that is translated to form a protein.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Forms part of ribosomes, a cells protein factories.
Transfer RNA (tRNA) Brings amino acids from the cytoplasm to a ribosome to help make the growing protein.
Stop Codons Codon that signals to ribosomes to stop translation.
Start Codon Codon that signals to ribosomes to begin translation; codes for the first amino acids in a protein.
Anticodon Set of 3 nucleotides in the tRNA molecule that binds to a complementary mRNA codon during translation.
Created by: daltocra9932
 

 



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