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chapter 8 vocab


Nucleotide monomer that forms DNA and has a phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base.
Double helix - model that compares the structure of a DNA molecule, in which two strands wind around one another, to that of a twisted ladder.
Base pairing rules rule that describes how nucleotides form bonds in DNA; Adenine (A) always bonds with thymine (T), and guanine (G) always bonds with cytosine (C).
Replication process by which DNA is copied.
DNA polymerase enzyme that makes bonds between nucleotides, forming an identical strand of DNA during replication.
Central dogma Theory that states that, in cells, information only flows from DNA TO RNA to proteins.
RNA nucleic acid molecule that allows for the transmission of genetic information and protein synthesis.
Transcription process of copying a nucleotide sequence of DNA to form a complementary strand of mRNA
RNA polymerase enzymes that catalyzes the synthesis of a complementary strand of RNA from a DNA template.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) form of RNA that carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) RNA that is in the ribosome and guides the translation of mRNA into a protein; also used as a molecular clock.
Transfer RNA (tRNA) form of RNA that brings amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis.
Translation process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced
Codon sequence of three nucleotides that codes for one amino acid.
Stop codon codon that signals ribosomes to stop translation.
Start codon codon that signals to ribosomes to begin translation; codes for the first amino acid in a protein.
Anti-codon set of three nucleotides in tRna molecule that binds to a complementary mRNA codon during translation.
Promoter section of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds, starting the transcription of mRNA
Operon Section of DNA that contains all of the code to begin transcription, regulate transcription, and build a protein; includes a promotor, regulatory gene and structural gene.
Exon sequence of DNA that codes information for protein synthesis.
Intron segment of a gene that does not code for amino acid.
Mutation change in the DNA sequence
Point mutation mutation that involves a substitution of only one nucleotide
Frameshift mutation mutation that involves the insertion or deletion of nucleotide in the DNA sequence.
Mutagen agent that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation in organisms.
Created by: tichesky5613



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