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Chapter 8 vocab

DNA and genes

TermDefinition
Nuclotides Small units, or monomers, that make up DNA
Double helix two strands of DNA wind around each other like a twisted ladder
base pairing rules TA and CG
Replication Process by which DNA is copied during the cell cycle
DNA polymerrases bond the new nucleotides together
central dogma molecular biology, which states that information flows in one direction, from DNA and RNA proteins
RNA Ribonucleic acid, a chain of nucleotides, each made of sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing-base
Transcription process of copying a sequence of DNA to produce a complementary stand of RNA.
RNA polymerases enzymes that bond nucleotides together in a chain to make a new RNA molecule
Messenger RNA (mRNA) an intermediate message that is translated to form a protein
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) forms part of ribosomes, a cell's protein factories
Transfer RNA (tRNA) brings amino acids from the cytoplasm to a ribosome to help make the growing protein
Translation the process that converts, or translates, an mRNA message into a polypeptide
Codon three-nucleotide sequence that codes for an an amino acid
Stop codons signal the end of the amino acid chain
start codons signals the start of the translation and the amino acid methionie
anticodon set of three nucleotides that is complementary to an mRNA
Created by: scifrmak2594