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Biology Quarter 3 Final Review

Define biology Biology = study of living things
Tell the difference between the control and experimental groups in an experiment. Control group = group that has normal conditions Experimental group = group where variables are manipulated
Define independent and dependent variable and explain their relationship Independent variable = variable that YOU control in an experiment. Dependent variable = variable that DEPENDS on the independent variable.
Describe how matter and energy move through an ecosystem Matter cycles, energy flows
Explain why food chains are so short Energy gets lost in each transfer
Define niche and describe the niches of producers, consumers, and decomposers Niche = an organism’s ecological role Producers make food Consumers eat producers Decomposers feed off dead matter & waste.
Define biotic and abiotic factors and give three examples of each Biotic factors are living components of an ecosystem like plants, fungi, and bacteria. Abiotic factors are nonliving components of an ecosystem, like sunlight, temperature, and water.
Analyze the carbon cycle and its effects on global warming Combustion processes involved in burning fossil fuels contribute to increasing global temperatures.
Describe the relationship between surface area and volume to explain why cells are small Small cells are efficient because they have a high surface area to volume ratio.
Compare and contrast plant and animal cells Plants cells have a cell wall and chloroplasts whereas animals cells do not. Animal cells have lysosomes.
Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic cells do NOT have membranes or organelles and include members of Eubacteria and Archaebacteria. Eukaryotic cells have membranes and organelles and include members of Eukaryota.
Define diffusion and predict which way solutes would move across a membrane or barrier Diffusion is the spreading out of particles. Solutes (dissolved particles) always move from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated.
Explain the relationship between diffusion and equilibrium Particles diffuse until they have reached equilibrium, where they are evenly spread out.
Define hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic, predict which way water would move across a membrane or barrier, and explain why Part 1 Cells in hypertonic solutions contain fewer solutes than the solution. Cells in hypotonic solutions contain more solutes than the solution. Cells in isotonic solutions have an equal concentration of solutes compared to the solution.
Define hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic, predict which way water would move across a membrane or barrier, and explain why Part 2 ...Water will travel from where solutes are less concentrated to where they are more concentrated in order to reach equilibrium.
Compare and contrast passive and active transport Passive transport moves particles from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration and does not require energy. Active transport moves particles from regions of low concentration to regions of high concentration and requires energy.
Compare and contrast bacteria and viruses Bacteria are larger and more complex than viruses. Viruses are only made of nucleic acid in a protein coat.
Describe the difference between sex cells and sex chromosomes Sex cells are haploid cells that combine during fertilization. Sex chromosomes are the pair of chromosomes that determine whether an organism is male or female
List the number of sex and non-sex (autosomes) chromosomes in body (somatic) and sex cells There are 22 pairs of autosomes (total = 44) and 1 pair of sex chromosomes (total =2) in the human body.
Compare and contrast the steps and products of meiosis and mitosis Meiosis produces haploid gamete (sex) cells whereas mitosis produces diploid somatic (body) cells.
Describe the role of sex cells in reproduction Sex cells each have a random half of the parent’s DNA. When combined with the other parent’s DNA, they form a full set of DNA for one individual.
Describe the structure of a chromosome Chromosomes are made of proteins and DNA.
Explain the relationship between genotype and phenotype A genotype is the combination of genes that codes for a specific phenotype. A phenotype is a trait
Explain the relationship between dominant and recessive Dominant traits only require one allele to show up. Recessive traits require two alleles to show up.
Describe the inheritance (dominant, recessive, co-dominant) of ABO blood types A and B are co-dominant to each other. A is dominant to O. B is dominant to O.
Describe the shape and composition of DNA DNA forms a double-helix shape. Each segment of DNA is called a nucleotide. Each nucleotide is made of a sugar, nitrogen base, and phosphate. The nitrogen bases can be adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), or cytosine (C).
Describe the function of DNA DNA codes for proteins. Cells need proteins for structure and to carry out functions.
Compare and contrast DNA and RNA RNA is single-stranded, while DNA is double-stranded. RNA contains the nitrogen base uracil instead of thymine.
Describe the roles of mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA during translation mRNA carries genetic information from the nucleus to ribosomes. rRNA make up ribosomes, which are the location where proteins are made. tRNA transfers amino acids onto ribosomes.
Describe the relationship between mRNA codons and amino acids in translation. mRNA codons are three-letter sequences that are read by ribosomes and tell them which amino acid to add.
Explain where hydrogen and covalent bonds are found in DNA and their importance in structure, replication, and transcription Hydrogen bonds between nitrogen base pairs are weak enough that they can be broken for replication and transcription. Covalent bonds between sugar and phosphate are strong enough to hold DNA in the compact double-helix shape.
Created by: PLHSBiology1