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Ch. 21 Adolescence

Exam 3

Adolescent 11-24 years old Transitional stage between childhood and adulthood, starts at onset of puberty
Puberty Males:14 Females:13 Changes in the reproductive, endocrine, and structural processes that lead to fertility. Rapid changes in physical, psychosocial, spiritual, moral, and cognitive growth
Sweat Glands Axillary, genital, and umbilical areas. Source of B.O.
Sebaceous Glands Face, shoulders, chest, upper back, neck, genitals. Can become clogged or inflamed with debris Increased sebum
Acne Q1 80-84% of adolescence have acne Wash face two-three times a day with soap and water Vigorous scrubbing should be discouraged, squeezing leads to further injury or irritation
Blackheads open comedones
White heads closed comedones
Risk-Taking Behavior "Peter pan" ideology and experimentation invulnerability to illness or injury
Slang Texting, popular dress, drug use, peer activities
Partnering Approach Q7 Support autonomy; Focus on strengths
Scoliosis Q8 Curvature of the spine; S-shaped Screenings for prepubertal and pubertal adolescents Common in females Early identification important; disfigurement, impaired morbidity, cardiopulmonary complications
Primary Sex Characteristics Essential for reproduction Female- uterus/vagina Male- testis/penis
Secondary Sex Characteristics Not essential for reproduction Breasts, facial/pubic hair, low voice
Tanner Staging Chart to monitor the degree of maturation of the primary and secondary sex characteristics
Gynecomastia Development of breasts (unilateral/bilateral) prior to a growth spurt- males Typically temporary and usually disappear Occasionally persists and leads to body image problems
Males Thinning of the scrotal sac and enlargement of testicles Ejaculation; nocturnal emissions
Females Development of breast buds Menarche, typically have a higher pulse than males
Menarche Start of menstruation Typically two years after formation of breast buds
Teens* Less acute illnesses than children Less chronic illnesses than adults Overall less hospital visits
Turner Syndrome XO Females- only one X chromosome than two X's Short stature, shield shaped chest, low hair line, lack of reproductive development, remain sterile, low set ears, cardiac/renal anomalies present
Klinefelter Syndrome XXY Males- Extra Y chromosome Seldom diagnosed before puberty Tall, thin, behavioral/learning problems, do not develop secondary sex characteristics, androgen therapy, remains sterile
Body Image Feels of and views of body and influence of social norms/expectations Media influence/ health perception- Q4
Anorexia Nervosa Q10 Affects more females than males Feeling of control- restricted eating, high physical activity, brittle hair and nails, yellowish skin tone, thinness, self-starvation, muscle weakness, constipation, lack of menstruation, decreased sexual interest
Bulimia Nervosa Affects females more than males Binge eating of high-caloric foods, purge by self-induced vomiting or laxatives, affects electrolyte imbalance, teeth, dehydration
Binge Eating Disorder Compulsive over eating Eating while watching TV, playing video games, or internet surfing Leads to obesity and possible type II diabetes
Diabetes Type 1- high amount of glucose found in the blood. Uncontrolled= kidney failure, blindness, amputations Type 2- can be diagnosed at any age Overweight/inactive lifestyle; helped with lifestyle changes
Sleep-rest Need 8 hours of sleep a night Texting, jobs, extracurricular activities,substance abuse, early start to high school. Mood swings and behavioral problems
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development Q3- Formal operations- can focus on formation of thoughts, objects, and experiences, rather than the content Groundwork for abstract thinking
Introspection Ego-centrism- belief of being the primary focus; special, unique, and exceptional
Idealism Necessary part of normal thinking Goes against family beliefs, religion, or social causes due to its appearance of not solving social problems fast enough
Erikson's Theory of Psycho-social Development Form of an identity; opposing of role confusion leading to an identity crisis. Staging previous stages of psycho-social development
Body piercings and tattoos 30% Form of self expression; risk for HIV, hepatitis, blood-borne illnesses
Breast/testicular exams Females- 2-3 days after period ends when breasts are least tender or sensitive Males- after or during a warm shower
Depressive disorder Use of the words: sad, low, blue, down, hopeless, worried, bored, discouraged. Depressed, irritable mood, lack of pleasure in usual activities Linked with obesity and STI's
Dysthymia Depressive disorder that continues for a long period of time with no more than two months of relief
Suicide Third leading cause of death in this age group (10-24) Can be prevented; adolescence show many signs
Accidents Motor- 20 times more likely than any other age group Violence- weapons, music lyrics, test limits Sports injury- vulnerable, immature, poor judgment
Infection Mononucleosis "kissing disease" Direct contact of oropharyngeal secretions Prevalent among adolescents; Sore throat, enlarged lymph nodes, lethargy, high sexual energy = high risk-taking behaviors. STD infections
Tobacco use Starts in adolescent age
Cancer Cervical Cancer risks: Smoking, high number of sexual partners, partner that has a high number of sexual partners, engaging in sexual intercourse before the age of 20, history of STDs Annual PAP exam, pelvic exam, and HPV vaccination
Cognitive Future orientated, ability to delay immediate satisfaction, increased cognitive skills and understanding, increased vocabulary--slang, electronic communication
Created by: nursekendall06