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Schwartz NBEO 1

1000 facts

( ) blue, ( ) green ( ) red are the cone peaks 450,510,570
___ quanta are minimum for detection in dark adapted person 5 to 14, average of 9
a deuteranomolous trichromat mataches ___ with red and green on the anomoloscope, a normal trichromate would see more___ yellow, green
a gray square will appear red on a ___ background because of simulataneous contrast green
a myope sees a __ center with a ___ fringe when looking at a cobalt filter red , blue
a person cannot be a ____ deuteranomolous deuteranope
a protanope and a deuteranope have the same ___ luminosity curve scotopic
__ ( not effect) states the luminance of a mixture of colors is equal to the sum of the luminance of it parts (luminance is additive) Abney's law
airy's disc is due to __ diffraction
an emmetrope with +1.00 will see a __ circle with __ center blue, red
at the rod saturation pt, 10% of the pigment is ___ bleached
___ motion is apparent motion of small isolated object in dark environment Autokinetic
___ masking is explained by a latency difference backward
___ of the retina can be seen as moving spots while looking at a brightly illuminated surface (blue sky) blue arcs
____ are entopic phenomena seen in the center of the fovea blue spots or maxwell spots
___ color vision problems can be due to acquired ON defect blue yellow
Cataracts and age ___ CFF decrease
Cells in an ocular dominance column respond to stimuli in the __ orientation same
CFF decreases ___ by age 40,70% is due to ___ decrease, senile miosis
CFF __ with yellowing of the lens decreases
CFF __ with light intensity , if high frequency increases
it takes __ minutes for 50% of rods to regenerate and __ min for 50% of cones to regenerate 5, 1.5
kitten's critical period is 1-3 months
Lambert surface reflects light equally in __ direction (a perfect diffuser) ALL
large pupils effect VA by __ & ___ aberration spherical and chromatic
location of maximal stimulus for rods is > 20 degrees
__ is the rate of passage of light from a source luminous flux
clouds are white due to ____ scatter Tyndall
color confusion is the basis for ____ pseudoisochromatic plates
color specification can be demonstrated by __,__,___ hue, chroma, value
complete spatial summation is implied in _____ Ricco's law
cones are maximally sensitive @ ___ 555 nm
Contrast sensitivity peaks at all spatial frequencies by age ___ and remains until __ 18, 39
contrast sensitivity shows overall depression under ___ condition mesopic
___ varies directly with the effective size of a retinal unit depth of focus
___ is the minimum visible detection VA
____'s colors generally attributed to different photoreceptor latencies fechner's
for given exposure to light, __ bleach faster cone
For every __ you move out on the horopter, panum's fusional area gets larger by __ degree 5, 1
__ and __ contribute to chroma Hue and saturation
__ specifies how much color stimulus differs from a white light of equal brightness HUE
if cones and rods are both bleached, after 5 minutes, more __ than __ will be regenerated cones , rods
if you induce exotropia, a monkey will be able to see out of either, , but not at the same time
if you wanted to test scotopic dark adaptation, you would use ___ target located __ degrees eccentrically blue/green , 20
in a badal optometer, a __, lens would provide __ per centimeter of object displacement +40, 16D
in the dark, accommodative posture is __ infinitiy inside
__ yields a continuous spectrum incandescence
in the leaf room, all __ cues are removed monocular
induced effect is from X __. geometric effect is from __ 180, x090
monkeys critical period is ___ 6 wks
monkeys raised in a confined environment will exhibit ___ myopia
Moore 's lighting streaks may be a sign of ___ PVD
most common ectopic phenomena are from ___ vitreal floaters
most common form of hereditary CV deficiency is __ deuteranomaly
most common method of determining the horopter is the __ apparent fronto-parallel plane
___ parallax is a cue that is within arms length motion
__ myopia is due to resting accommodation, chromatic aberration, spherical aberration, and extrafoveal fixation Night
Normal vernier acutity is __ 2-4 seconds
panum's fusional area is the largest ___ in the periphery
peak of CFF is __ 5 cycles/degree
phosphenes are more commonly seen in ___ women, and are seen __ and __ middle aged, vertically and temporally
pulfrich phenomenon is seen ___ with filter on the OD ey e Counterclockwise
receptive fields of complex cells are selective for ____ motion of a certain orientation
red curve is missing for __, green for __ prontonopes,deuteronopes
red-yellow are the colors that are confused by a ____ tritanope
refocusing with (+) lens affects CSF @ __ frequency high
retinal vessels are not visible due to ___ effect troxler effect
rods are maximally sensitive @ 505
signal detection DOES NOT detect ___ background noise
Sky is blue due to ____ rayleigh scatter
small pupil decreases VA by ___ Diffraction
snellen acutiy compares with CSF at ___ frequency highest frequency
spectral sensitivity shifts towards __ wavelengths as you age LOW
stereopsis requires ___ disparity HORIZONTAL
stiles crawford effect I (angle affects brightness) has to do with wave property of light
stiles crawford effect I is present in __ and __ , but more in ___ rods and cone, cones
temporal summation is ___ sec for scotopic and __ msec for photoptic 100 ms, and 10-50 msec
temporal summation is ___ of wavelength independent
temporal summation is longer for ___ stimuli and lower __ levels pattern, light
the ___ wave has the highest amplitude B
the best measure of resoln acuity is __ grating stimuli
the flicker and cascade methods represents techniques used in ____ heterochromatic photometry
the greatest modulation in a diagram is the one with the greatest difference in peak and trough
the hue that will appear least saturated to deuteranope is ___ green
the ___is a unit of luminous flux (luminous pwr) lumen
the main reason for modular transfer is ___ image on the retina quality
the min distance that can be resolved at 1km with the unaided eye is ___ 26.8
the nonius horopter is referred to as the ___ horopter equi-angular
the peak of phototopic luminosity curve is ___ 555
the perceived brightness of a brief single flash stimulus remains constant if time is ___ than the critical duration greater
the photochromatic interval is __ for red stimuli and is larger for ____ 0, blue/green
____ are designed around confusion lines in the CIE diagram pseudoisochromatic plates
the process of colors analysis begins at the ___ retina
the purkinje shift prves the __ theory purkinje
the spatial modulation transfer fxn is the ratio of the input frequency to the __ input contrast
Luminance, chromaticity, s phase( LCS) potential are ___ graded, transient
the threshold sensitivity of ___ is more affected than cones by a given amt of pigment bleaching rods
the time required to perceive apparent motion is a ___ msec pause btw 2 targets 50-60
the __ is a measure of retinal illuminance troland
the ___ is the luminance of a stimulus times the area of the entrance pupil troland
under scoptopic conditions , ___ will seems brighter blue poker chips
___ light causes cataract changes and is the most damaging to ocular structures UV B 300
VA ___ as airy disc __ increases, decreases
__ is the best measure of VA vernier
___ are preferred in the cortex vertical
VM circle is the locus of pts with ---geometric retinal disparity 0
when you fixate on a dart target, it is __ oculoexentric
with ODX90 and OS X 180 right wall will seem ___ farther out
Created by: rajal2010