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Biology CH. 6

Meiosis and Mendel

TermDefinition
Somatic Cell Cell that makes up all of the body tissues and organs, except gametes.
Gamete Sex cell; an egg or a sperm cell.
Homologous Chromosomes Chromosomes that have the same length, appearance, and copies of genes, although the alleles may differ.
Diploid Cell that has two copies of each chromosome, one from an egg and one from a sperm.
Haploid Cell that has only one copy of each chromosome.
Meiosis Form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells; important in forming gametes for sexual reproduction.
Cross Mating of two organisms.
Law of Segregation Mendel's first law, stating that (1) organisms inherit two copies of genes, one from each parent, and (2) organisms donate only one copy of each gene in their gametes because the genes separate during gamete formation.
Gene Specific region of DNA that codes for a particular protein.
Allele Any of the alternative forms of a gene that occurs at a specific place on a chromosome.
Homozygous Characteristic of having two of the same alleles at the same locus of sister chromatids.
Heterozygous Characteristic of having two different alleles that appear at the same locus of sister chromatids.
Genotype Collection of all of an organism's genetic information that codes for traits.
Phenotype Collection of all of an organism's physical characteristics.
Dominant Allele that is expressed when two different alleles are present in an organism's genotype.
Recessive Allele that is not expressed unless two copies are present in an organism's genotype.
Test Cross Cross between an organism with an unknown genotype and an organism with a recessive phenotype.
Law of Independent Assortment Mendel's second law, stating that allele pairs separate from one another during gamete formation.
Created by: Mr.Devine