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LE BasicGenetics

Genes segment of DNA on a chromosome that contains the code for a specific trait
Chromosomes thick threadlike structure that contains genetic information in form of DNA
Alleles any of several forms of a gene
Dominant 1 allele masks another in a hybrid mix; expressed allele is dominant
Recessive the trait that is hidden or not expressed when in the heterozygous form (Tt)
Homozygous having identical pairs of genes for any given pair of hereditary characteristics
Heterozygous having dissimilar pairs of genes for any given pair of hereditary characteristics
Hybrid having dissimilar pairs of genes for any given pair of hereditary characteristics; heterozygous
Genotype genetic make up of the organism
Phenotype appearance of the organism
Segregation separation of homologous chromosomes in meiosis
Recombination restoration of diploid number in fertilization
Crossing over the interchange of corresponding chromatid segments of homologous chromosomes with their linked genes
Synapsis the pairing of homologous chromosomes, one from each parent, during early meiosis
Test cross involves the breeding of an individual with a phenotypically recessive individual, in order to determine genotype of parent
Intermediate inheritance the phenotype of the hybrid is different from both parents
Codominance the phenotype of both dominant alleles is expressed (AB)
Independent assortment traits are inherited independently
gene linkage genes on the same chromosome tend to be inherited together
sex determination determined by the presence of the y chromosome
autosomes non sex chromosomes
sex chromosomes x and y chromosomes
x linkage trait is located on the x chromosome with no corresponding allele on the y
hemophilia inability of blood to clot
colorblindness inability to distinguish red/green colors; mostly in males
mutation change in genetic material
nondisjunction pair of homologous chromosomes fail to separate after synapses  gametes with > or < n chromosomes (trisomy 21)
polyploidy form of nondisjunction that results in extra set of chromosomes; 3n
deletion segment of chromosome is lost
translocation segment of chromosome breaks off and reattaches to nonhomologous chromosome
inversion segment of chromosome breaks off & reattaches at new point on original chromosome resulting in a change in the order of the genes
gene mutation random change in the chemical nature of genetic material (DNA)
mutagenic agent substances that cause gene mutations (X rays, UV light, radioactive substances, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, cigarette smoke)
Created by: jgarrisi



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