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Bio. SG Vocab.

Evolution A heritable change in the characteristics within a population from one generation to the next
Autotroph An organism that produces its own nutrients from inorganic substances or from the environment instead of consuming other organisms
Heterotroph An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their byproducts and that cannot synthesize organic compounds from inorganic materials
Overproduction When more offspring can be produced than can survive to maturity
Genetic Variation When individuals have different traits
Struggle To Survive When individuals must compete with one another to survive, thus causing adaptations over time
Differential Reproduction Populations begin to differ as they become adapted to different environments
Decent With Modification All species descended from one or a few original kinds of life
Allopatric Speciation When species arise as a result of geographic isolation
Sympatric Speciation When two sub populations become re-productively isolated within the same geographic area
Species A group of organisms that are closely related and can mate to produce fertile offspring
Convergent Evolution The process by which unrelated species become more similar as they adapt to the same kind of environment
Divergent Evolution The process by which two or more related but re-productively isolated populations become more and more dissimilar
Co-evolution The evolution of two or more species that is due to mutual influence, often in a way that makes the relationship more mutually beneficial
Disruptive Selection When two extreme forms of a trait are selected
Stabilizing Selection When the average form of a trait is favored and becomes more common
Directional Selection When the most extreme form of a trait is favored and becomes more common
Radioactive Isotope An isotope that has an unstable nucleus and that emits radiation
Half-life The time required for half of a sample of a radioactive isotope to break down by radioactive decay to form a daughter isotope
Cladogram A diagram that's based on patterns of shared and derived traits and that shows the evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms
Gene Flow The movement of genes into or out of a population due to interbreeding
Gradualism A model of evolution in which gradual change over a long period of time leads to biological diversity
Catastrophism The idea that sudden geologic catastrophes caused the extinction of large groups of organisms at certain points in the past
Punctuated Equilibrium A model of evolution in which short periods of drastic change in species, including mass extinctions and rapid speciation, are separated by long periods of little or no change
Created by: archergirl



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