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Evolution

Ch 13 vocab and concepts

QuestionAnswer
inherited trait (structure or behavior) that helps an organism survive adaptation
process of how organisms acquire adaptations over time (change traits across generations) evolution
tree-like diagram that displays evolutionary relationships among living things and their ancestors (relatively step-wise) cladogram
What are four types/lines of evidence for evolution? comparative anatomy, DNA evidence, embryology, fossil record
What structures have a common origin (same pattern) but do not need to perform the same function homologous
What structure serve the same function but come from different evolutionary origins analogous
What structures exist in an organism, but do not have a purpose? vestigial
How is embryology used for evolutionary evidence? Organisms that are MORE similar as embryos are MORE related to each other
How is DNA/ molecular evidence use to determine evolutionary evidence? Organisms that have DNA or Protein sequences that are more similar are more related to each other
Who developed the theory of natural selection? Charles Darwin
What types of evidence did Darwin use to support his theory? geology, experiments in artificial selection, observations of fossils and observations living organisms (on GI v SA and within GI) on his voyage
the process by which organisms with favorable adaptations survive and reproduce natural selection
How do variations in traits arise? mostly through random genetic mutation, but also through sexual reproduction
the variety (range / differences) of alleles (forms) in a population; OR the differences for one trait in a species (genetic) variation
a group of organisms of one species that interbreed population
how does a new species form (brach off of) "old" ones? one way is through isolation, adaptation and differentiation
how is it determined when organisms are no longer the same species? when their genetic differences would prevent them from interbreeding (ie - they are too different) which is also called differentiation
adaptations an organism has are no longer sufficient for survival extinction
What are facts about Charles Darwin? He was a British naturalist that went on a 5 year voyage in the 1830's. He had a background in theology and medicine.
Why are there gaps in the fossil record? Most organisms (probably 1% or less) don't leave fossils - they aren't in the right place at the right time, their remains are disturbed before they can fossilized
What organisms had multiple versions within the Galapagos Islands? What did Darwin conclude from this? Tortoises, Finches and Iguanas; They met their needs in different ways and adapted to their environments
What organisms had different but similar versions on both Galapagos Islands and South America? What did Darwin conclude from this? Iguanas and Cormorants; due to similarities - organisms on Galapagos migrated from SA and adapted through natural selection to the islands.
What type of evidence studies similarities and differences in body structures? comparative anatomy
Created by: jenhaugen01