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Plant diversity

How plants colonized land

QuestionAnswer
When did cyanobacteria (blue-algae) and protist existed on land 1.2 billion years ago
When did small plants,fungi and animals emerged on land 500 million years ago
When did tells plants (forest) appeared ? 385 million year ago
do land plants include photosynthetic protists no
what are the closest relatives of land plants charophytes
characteristics plants share with algae multicellular, eukaryotic, photosynthetic autotrophs, cell walls
which traits do charophytes share with land plants ring of cellulose-synthesizing proteins, structure of flagellated sperm, formation of a phragmoplast,
What prevents zygotes from charophytes from drying out a layer of durable polymer called sporopollenin
where is sporopollenin also found plants spore walls
what did the movement to land provide for plants unfiltered sun, more CO2 , and nutrient-rich soil
what challenges did land present for plants a scarcity of water and lack of structural support
what are plants place in embryophytes
Five key traits appear in nearly all land plants but are absent in the charophytes Alternation of generations Multicellular, dependent embryos Walled spores produced in sporangia Multicellular gametangia Apical meristems
what is gametophyte gametophyte is haploid and produces haploid gametes by mitosis
what happens when the gametes fused Fusion of the gametes gives rise to the diploid sporophyte, which produces haploid spores by meiosis
what does Mitotic division of the diploid zygote produces the other multicellular body, the sporophyte
what is a spore A spore is a reproductive cell that can develop into a new organism without fusing with another cell.
what are sporangia ? The sporophyte that produces spores in organs
what are sporocytes diploid cells that undergo meiosis to generate haploid spores
what is sporopollenin are in sporopollenin which makes them resistant to harsh environments.
gametes are produced within which organs gametangia
what are female gametangia called archegonia produce eggs and are the site of fertilization
what are Male gametangia called antheridia, produce and release sperm
Apical Meristems Plants sustain continual growth
what is a cuticle a waxy covering of the epidermis
what is stomata are specialized cells that allow for gas exchange between the outside air and the plant
what is Mycorrhizae symbiotic associations between fungi and land plants that may have helped plants without true roots to obtain nutrients
when were plants first of earth 470 million years ago
what are nonvascular plants called bryophytes
seedless vascular plants lycophytes, monilophytes
gymnosperms the naked seed plants including the conifers
angiosperms the flowering plants
The morphology-based tree divides bilaterians into two clades deuterostomes and protostomes
In contrast, recent molecular studies indicate three bilaterian clades: Deuterostomia, Ecdysozoa, and Lophotrochozoa
how do Ecdysozoans shed their skeleton through a process called ecdysis
what is the feeding structure of lophotrochozoans lophophore
what clade do chordates and other phyla belong to to the deuterostomia
what type of tissue Eumetazoa clade of animals (eumetazoans) have true tissue
sponges are basal animals
In protostome development, cleavage is spiral and determinate
In deuterostome development, cleavage is radial and indeterminate
what is a larva sexually immature and morphologically distinct from the adult; it eventually undergoes metamorphosis
diploid stages cleavage,blastula,gastrulation,gastrula.
what is ectoderm germ layer covering surface
endoderm he innermost germ layer and lines the developing digestive tube, called the archenteron
Sponges and a few other groups lack true tissues
Diploblastic animals have ectoderm and endoderm
Triploblastic animals also have an intervening mesoderm layer; these include all bilaterians
Most triploblastic animals possess a body cavity
A true body cavity is called a coelom
A pseudocoelom is a body cavity derived from the mesoderm and endoderm
In protostome development, the blastopore becomes the mouth
In deuterostome development, the blastopore becomes the anus
what is Cephalization the development of a head
Some animals have radial symmetry, with no front and back, or left and right
two-sided symmetry is called bilateral symmetry
Created by: sdiaz22